Thomas J. Nevin at his finest: Camille Del Sarte and family 1860s-1870s

T. J. NEVIN a fine hand-coloured cdv of a young boy ca. 1876
DEL SARTE, Camille Auguste (1818-1877): family in France and Australia
ENTERTAINMENTS Del Sarte Concert Rooms and the Oddfellows Hall 1860s-1870s

This exquisite portrait of an unidentified young child – who is likely to be male rather than female and possibly one of three sons out of five children in total to survive from nine children born to Ann Caroline Conroy (1839-1914) and Camille Del Sarte (or Delsarte, 1818 -1877) between 1861 and 1874 – was taken by professional photographer Thomas J. Nevin, possibly ca. 1867-1868, or more probably ca, 1874-1876 at his studio, the City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town, Tasmania. The plinth on which the boy is sitting also appears in a photograph Thomas Nevin took of his brother Jack (Constable John Nevin) in 1868. It is identifiable in each photograph from the missing piece of decorative plaster, which on this side is near the boy’s left foot.

Subject: Young boy ca. 3 yrs old, unidentified but possibly Camille Frederick Charles Del Sarte. (jnr)
He is wearing a costume jacket, bloomers, white socks and a feathered hat, perched on a plinth holding a rose.
Photographer: Thomas J. Nevin (1842-1923)
Location: City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town, Tasmania.
Date: ca. 1876
Details: Carte-de-visite albumen print in buff oval mount (103 x 63 mm); light colouring of boy’s cheeks and pink and green of the rose he is holding.
Drape to viewer’s right coloured deep maroon.
Provenance: Douglas Stewart Fine Books ex “Parisian photography dealer”.
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2020 Private Collection. Watermarked.

Verso: note the light splattering of red watercolour. from application of same to the rose and drape recto.
This photograph carries Thomas Nevin’s most common commercial studio stamp which he modified only slightly from the design of Alfred Bock’s stamp when he acquired Bock’s lease of the studio and glasshouse in 1867.
He continued with its use despite the wording – “T. Nevin late A. Bock” – right through to early 1876 when he quit the studio in Elizabeth Street.
Subject: Young boy ca. 3 yrs old, unidentified but possibly Camille Frederick Charles Del Sarte. (jnr)
He is wearing a costume jacket, bloomers, white socks and a feathered hat, perched on a plinth holding a rose.
Photographer: Thomas J. Nevin (1842-1923)
Location: City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town, Tasmania.
Date: ca.1876
Details: Carte-de-visite albumen print in buff oval mount (103 x 63 mm); light colouring of boy’s cheeks and pink and green of the rose he is holding.
Drape to viewer’s right coloured deep maroon.
Provenance: Douglas Stewart Fine Books ex “Parisian photography dealer”.
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2020 Private Collection. Watermarked.

Who is this child?
Nine children were born to Camille Del Sarte and Ann Caroline Conroy between 1861 and 1874. Of the six boys, three are known to have survived to adulthood – Leopold Zavier, Camille Frederick and Ernest Ashley; and three did not live longer than 16 months – Francis Henry, Rolland Augustus (registered at birth as Gustavus Rowland at Hobart in 1864 but died in Sydney, 1865, 12 months old), and Henry John (twin of Henrietta Daisy).  Of the three girls, Marie Albertine survived to adulthood, Henrietta Daisy (twin of Henry) died before the age of 12 months, and the third – Madalene – is known to have married as Madeline [sic] Ethel in 1918. The first to survive was Marie Albertine Del Sarte. She was likely a Francophone, or more competently bilingual than her younger siblings, an important factor in what follows.

If this confident lad who visited Thomas Nevin’s studio is indeed a son of Camille Auguste and Ann Caroline Del Sarte nee Conroy, his identity could be established from the ages of two of their sons who were 3 to 6 yrs old between 1874-1876 while Thomas J. Nevin was still active at his Elizabeth St. studio. He could be Leopold Zavier (born 1866 in Sydney NSW who died in Victoria 1936). Or he could be Camille Frederick (born Sydney 1873, died Victoria 1960). The third son, Ernest Ashley (born Sydney 1874), was still a baby, less two years old and too young to be a contender. The single factor which might date the photograph to the late 1860s, on the other hand, is the plinth on which the child is perched. It only featured as part of Thomas Nevin’s studio decor in the 1860s. It seems to have disappeared from all later studio portraits once Nevin’s partnership with Robert Smith, operating as the firm Nevin & Smith, was dissolved in February 1868.

Neither of these two sons, Leopold Zavier or Camille Frederick, it seems, desired patrimonial citizenship by returning to France, especially since their father Camille Del Sarte no longer retained exclusive French citizenship once he became a “naturalized” citizen of the British Empire at Hobart in 1857. So, Thomas Nevin’s finely coloured photograph of this boy, assuming he was a younger sibling of Marie Albertine Del Sarte, might have been sent to the family of uncles, aunts and grandparents in France, since its source hinted that its provenance was thought to be “a Parisian photography dealer” (Douglas Stewart Fine Books, Melbourne).

If this arresting child with his strong and steady gaze was Leopold Zavier Del Sarte, born on 23 June 1866 in Sydney NSW, he would have visited Thomas Nevin’s studio, probably with his parents, on their return to Hobart in 1874. He would have been about seven years old, although this child does not appear to be quite that old. Whoever he might be, whether Leopold or Camille Del Sarte, or indeed a child from an entirely different family, this young boy posed for his portrait wearing a theatrical costume and feathered tarboosh rather than street clothing. He certainly displayed the aplomb of a performer at the moment of photographic capture. In 1866, Puss in Boots was staged at Del Sarte’s Concert Hall in Harrington St. Hobart with a very young Amy Sherwin (1855–1935, later known as the Tasmanian nightingale, in which this young actor may well have played a part. The operetta Zillah, or the Gipsy Brigands of Astorga, and the opera de camera Maritana also featured on the bill. Camille Del Sarte was in Sydney by 1867. Did he leave Hobart in 1865, or did he leave around 1869 per his Obituary notice, returning to Hobart with his family in 1874?

Source: Tasmanian Morning Herald (Hobart, Tas. : 1865 – 1866), Friday 8 June 1866, page 2

OPERA DE CAMERA.
The first of a series of six of these popular performances was given on Wednesday evening, at Del Sartes’ Rooms, by Mr Russell and a Company of Native Musical Amateurs. There was a very excellent “House,” and “Maritana” – the opera selected for the first night of the “Season,” was performed with signal success, and to the evident satisfaction of a highly gratified audience. We refrain from any mention of names on this occasion, but we may say that Maritana, Don Caesar, and Lazarillo, deserves special mention for the excellence of their vocalisation. The beautiful aria “Alas those Chimes” was very sweetly and effectively rendered. And the duet “ Sainted Mother” was a very charming performance indeed. The Choruses were very well given .by “the entire strength of the Company,” and the orchestral accompaniment was in itself a very great musical treat On the whole we may fairly congratulate Mr Russell on the success of his amiable endeavour: to develop the native vocal and histrionic talent of “ the sweet south.’’ The night’s performance was an improvement in every respect on its predecessors, and constituted as agreeable and innocent an evening’s recreation as could well be devised by this most inventive entrepreneur. The price of admission places these pretty performances within the reach of everybody and they will soon, no doubt, become one of the must popular institutions of the capital. “ Puss in ‘Boots” ’ Zillah’’ a new opera, and “Maritana ’ again constitute the bill of the season, which will extend over the next six weeks.

Source: Tasmanian Morning Herald (Hobart, Tas. : 1865 – 1866), Friday 8 June 1866, page 2

Thomas J. Nevin used several studio stamp designs over the course of two decades as a professional photographer. The verso of this photograph carries the most common commercial studio stamp which he modified only slightly from the design of Alfred Bock’s stamp when he acquired Bock’s lease of the studio and glasshouse in 1867. He continued with its use despite the wording – “T. Nevin late A. Bock” – right through to 1876 when he quit the studio in Elizabeth Street to take a full time position in the civil service with residency at the Hobart Town Hall. In other words, this portrait could have been taken as late as 1876, in which case, the child might be his father’s namesake, Camille Frederick (born Sydney 1873, died Victoria 1960).

It is an odd thing indeed that not ONE photograph of Camille Del Sarte (or of his wife and children) appears to be extant in any public collection. Surely he was photographed, whether in Hobart in the 1850s and 1860s, in Sydney in the 1860s to the early 1870s, and back in Hobart in the years 1874-1877, given he was so affectionately regarded as a performer and concert master. Perhaps the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery has a neglected bundle of photographs, sheet music and performance ephemera relating to Del Sarte’s time in Hobart but as the TMAG has no online database, who can even guess at what they hold?

Thomas J. Nevin at Camille Del Sarte’s Rooms, 1871
The opening of Camille Del Sarte’s Music Hall and Concert Rooms was noted at length in the Mercury, 21 May 1860, with descriptions of architectural features, interior decor and future plans for performances. Camille Del Sarte provided assistance to the Odd-Fellows Order with their band formation and rehearsals.

TRANSCRIPT

ODD-FELLOWSHIP
Odd-Fellows Society and Town Band.
MUSICIANS, in the Order, or who may intend to join in, are respectfully invited to meet the undersigned at Mons. Del Sarte’s Concert Rooms, Harrington and Davy-streets, THIS EVENING, the 22nd instant, at Seven o’clock p.m., precisely, to consider a project for establishing an O. F. BAND, sufficient for the requirements of the Order, and available for the amusement of the public on occasions where the aid of a numerously organised and well appointed Band is a desideratum. Should the idea be approved of, and succeed ultimately, it is not too much to hope that, as one result, the love and practice of music may hereafter be better appreciated and more cultivated than it is at present. Mons. Del Sarte has kindlv consented to attend on the occasion, and lend the effort the valuable aid of his talents and experience.
22 m            S. MORIARTY.

Source: Advertising (1860, May 22). The Hobart Town Daily Mercury (Tas. : 1858 – 1860), p. 3.
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article19469112

When professional photographer Thomas J. Nevin became a member of the LOYAL UNITED BROTHERS LODGE, A. & I.O.O.F. (Australian and International Order of Odd Fellows) in 1868, he regularly attended Lodge membership meetings at the building while Camille Del Sarte and his family resided there, no doubt making the acquaintance of the Del Sarte children. Thomas Nevin performed several roles within the Society, including official photographer, committee member for the Anniversary Ball held at the Bird and Hand Hotel, and agent for the Secretary. During September 1875, he placed an advertisement in the Mercury soliciting members of the medical profession to render services to Lodge members and their families. The Launceston Examiner reported that the new Odd Fellows’ Hall, formerly Del Sarte’s Concert Hall, was inaugurated at a dinner on Thursday 6th July 1871. Thomas Nevin attended the grand soiree with his fiancée Elizabeth Rachel Day. They married exactly six days later, on 12th July 1871, at the Wesleyan Chapel Kangaroo Valley (now Lenah Valley) Hobart. To celebrate the Hall’s inauguration, Thomas J. Nevin’s official photograph of the building for the AIOOF was offered to the public and lauded in the press as “creditable to the artist” (Mercury 25th July 1871) and “from its excellence, is likely to command a large sale” (Mercury 10th August 1871).

Source: Mercury, 25 July 1871

TRANSCRIPT

THE ODD FELLOWS’ HALL – A very fine photograph of the Odd Fellows’ Hall (corner of Davey and Harrington-streets) has been taken for the Society by Mr. Nevin, of Elizabeth-street. The view is taken from Davey-street, opposite the corner of the Freemasons’ Hotel, and thus shows the entrance to the rooms, with the whole front and side of the buildings. A well-known member of the institution, and a less known youth, have come within the range of the camera, and their presence greatly assists in conveying an idea of the dimensions of the hall. The picture is undoubtedly creditable to the artist.

The photograph of the Odd Fellows’ Hall taken by Thomas J. Nevin, however, is yet to surface from public collections, despite the likelihood that Nevin reproduced it in quantity in anticipation of large sales. The photograph below of the Odd Fellows’ Hall is accredited to Nevin’s lifelong close friend and colleague Henry Hall Baily (whose studio in Elizabeth St. Hobart faced Nevin’s in the 1860s), and it is dated some five years later, ca. 1876. It does not appear to be a later reproduction of Nevin’s original photograph, as the description in the Mercury of the 25th July 1871 mentioned two people captured in the camera’s range, unless of course, the photograph was cropped at some point, perhaps for a 20th century publication, and in the process attributed to H. H. Baily rather than T. J. Nevin. This print, and the one below are both held in the University of Tasmania collections, one of two taken from the same vantage point but at different times. The top one, dated in the mid 1870s, shows untrimmed bushes in front of Douglas Kilburn’s house in Davey Street, but the one below, which is unattributed and tentatively dated ca. 1880, shows the same bushes neatly trimmed.

Courtesy University of Tasmania Library Special and Rare Materials Collection.
Link: https://eprints.utas.edu.au/3102/
Note: “Photograph of Davey Street, Hobart, looking east, in about 1876. The photograph is taken from the intersection with Harrington Street and Oddfellows Hall is in the foreground.
The photographer was Henry Hall Baily who had studios in Elizabeth and Liverpool Streets, Hobart from 1865 until 1918.” Link: https://eprints.utas.edu.au/3102/

Courtesy University of Tasmania Library Special and Rare Materials Collection.
Davey Street from the corner of Harrington St. ca. 1880 (?)

Camille Del Sarte: a brief biography

This summary is cited from research conducted by Graeme Skinner , Honorary Associate in Musicology, Sydney Conservatorium of Music, University of Sydney:

Camille Del Sarte (or Delsarte), was a younger son of the medical doctor and inventor, Jean Nicolas Toussaint Delsarte and his wife Aimee Albertine Roland. There is a garbled report of his musical family connections in the Hobart press in 1858. However, he was, correctly, a younger brother of the internationally famous vocalist, teacher, and movement theorist François Delsarte (1811-1871), and of Aimee Delsarte (1815-1861), an accomplished pianist and mother of Georges Bizet (1838-1875).

According to the advertisement, Camille himself had been a music pupil (or instructor) at the “Conservatoire Royale” or “Académie Imperiale”, and professionally associated with the “Opera National”, Paris.

He came to Australia from Paris, via Java, in 1850-51, arriving at Adelaide on the Mazeppa, on 16 February 1851, in company with the equestrian showman Emile Caperre and his wife, a vocalist and dancer.

Del Sarte gave his first Australian concert in Adelaide in April 1851, during which he sang his own song Le chant beni des oiseaux. Evidently intending to settle, he applied for and was granted a liquor license for his Café Parisien in June, and made several more concert appearances, but by the end of the year seems to have determined to move on to Melbourne, and did so by early in 1852.

There, in March 1852 he advertised as a “Professor of Singing and Teacher of the Piano”, and indicted “his intention to remain in Port Phillip”. In the same advertisement he announced both his “first Australian composition”, the Juvenile Ball Quadrilles (probably written for Eugene Paris’s October ball in Adelaide), and his “first composition in Port Phillip”, The Faded Rose, written for the concert singer Elizabeth Testar.

But in January 1853, he moved on again to Hobart. There in June 1854 he introduced his ballad, Farewell, sung by himself, and dedicated to Francis Hartwell Henslowe, a local amateur musician and composer, which according to the Courier, was “plaintive and pleasing . . . likely to become a favourite”.

His Un rêve (romance musique) was among the Tasmanian Exhibits at the Paris Exhibition in 1855. He was the proprietor of one of Hobart’s main musical venues, Del Sarte’s Rooms, from 1854, when he presented his countryman Ali-Ben Sou-Alle.

Del Sarte and family moved to Sydney in 1865. There, in 1867, he marked the visit of the French ship Le Marceau by publishing his Le Marceau Galop.

His ballad, My tears for thee, which first appeared in 1868, was apparently popular enough to go into a fifth edition, issued by the publisher Robert Elvy.
Del Sarte returned to Hobart in 1874, and died there in 1877.

Sources:
1. Australharmony: https://www.sydney.edu.au/paradisec/australharmony/del-sarte-camille-and-family.php
2. Graeme Skinner, Toward a general history of Australian musical composition: first national music, 1788-c. 1860 (Ph.D thesis, Sydney Conservatorium of Music, University of Sydney, 2011), 342-43, 482, 486, 497, 515
http://hdl.handle.net/2123/7264 (DIGITISED)
Copyright © Graeme Skinner 2014 – 2020

KEY DOCUMENTS: Camille Del Sarte

1857: Naturalisation

TRANSCRIPT – first page:

C.S.O. [Colonial Secretary’s Office] 9th August 1855
Sir,

I am directed to acquaint you that the Gov’r has been honored with a despatch from the R. H. the Sec. of State, in answer to Sir W. Denison’s despatch of 31st Dec’r last, forwarding your letter of the same date, and signifying Her Majesty’s pleasure that the Gov’t of this Colony should issue to you Letters of Denization according to the provisions of the local Act 5 W.4. No. 4.

You must of course have the letters in question prepared by your own Solicitor.

I am etc W. T. N. Champ

M. Camille Del Sarte
Harrington Street.

The next two pages were written by Camille Del Sarte’s solicitor confirming his actions with regard to the rules set out in the Act. The last page addressed to Del Sarte’s solicitor P. Pitcairn confirms Camille Del Sarte’s denization provided he report to the Supreme Court to take the oaths of allegiance.
TRANSCRIPT – last page:

C. S. O Aug 1st 1857
Sir,

I have the honor to ack. the receipt of your letter of the 24 ult. transmitting for the Gov’r’s signature, letters of denization to M. Camille Auguste Del Sarte and to return you the instrument perfected.

I may at the same time draw your attention to the 2 Sec. of the Act of Council 5 No 4, which renders it necessary that M. Del Sarte should, within a month of the date of the letters, appear before one of the judges of the Sup. Crt. to take the oaths of allegiance, supremacy and abjuration.

I have etc
(Sgd) W. H.

P. Pitcairn, Esqr
Davey St.


Pages 1 and 2:


Pages 3 and 4:
Del Sarte, Camille Auguste
Record Type: Naturalisations
Year: 1857
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:447176
Resource: CSD1/1/59 no. 1258
Archives Office Tasmania

1860: Del Sarte’s new Music Hall
The building on the corner of Harrington and Davey Streets, at 57 Davey St. Hobart, was founded by Monsieur Camille Del Sarte as a concert and music hall, designed by Mr. F. Thomas, and opened officially on Thursday, 17th May 1860. This detailed report of the occasion was published in the Hobart Town Daily Mercury Monday 21 May 1860, page 2:

Above: extracts (a), and (b);
Below: extracts (c) and (d).
Hobart Town Daily Mercury, Monday 21 May 1860, page 2:

TRANSCRIPT

M. DEL SARTE’S NEW MUSIC HALL

The new Music Hall, erected by M. Del Sarte, at the corner of Davey and Harrington Street, was opened for the first time on Thursday evening in the presence of a large number of the gentry and principal inhabitants of Hobart Town, who had received cards of invitation. The object of the assembly was to test the acoustic properties of the Hall, and its fitness for the purpose to which it is devoted.

The Hall, access to which is gained by a broad flight of stairs, presents to the visitor on the folding doors being thrown open, a superb appearance from the chaste and appropriate manner in which the apartment is decorated. The room, which is 66 feet by 38 feet wide and 23 feet high, is lighted by a lantern light upwards of 50 feet in length, divided into compartments by semi-circular arched ribs, springing from light and elegant columns on either side. The ceiling of each compartment, as well as the sides of the lantern, are panelled and finished in white and gold, and in each compartment of ceiling is a large centre formed with small mirrors, with splendid glass chandeliers pendent from the centres. The walls of the Hall are panelled, each alternate panel bearing a medallion embellished with fruit and flowers. The panels are formed of styles of figured gilt, with borders of China aster, the panel part being very delicately colored, and enclosed in louis quatorze frames, which, with the medallions, produce an excellent effect. When the Hall is lighted the reflected light from the innumerable little mirrors in the centres and other points of reflection, together with the chaste and classical decorations of the whole apartment, presents a marvellously brilliant but subdued and elegant appearance.

The room, which is furnished with appropriate benches, is capable of being used, not only as a Concert Hall, but as a Ball Room, and possesses also a proscenium and conveniences for the erection of a temporary stage, which renders it well adapted for selections from the Opera or the performances of any of the sparkling vaudevilles of the day; the aisles also affording every facility for promenade concerts. In conjunction with with the Hall are rooms tastefully fitted up as a cloak and dressing rooms for ladies, with Refreshment and Card Rooms. From the lobby leading to the principal stair-case are entrance doors leading to the Ladies’ Toilette Rooms, from which a separate stair-case leads to the landing immediately outside the principal entrance to the Concert Room.

The Hall possesses the advantage also of being readily converted into a picture gallery having rods for hanging the pictures concealed within the walls.

On entering the ground floor of the house is a promenade which can be closed as may be required and which will add greatly to the enjoyment of those visiting the hall on occasions on which the room is too densely crowded.

The company having assembled M. Del Sarte sang Sans Amour, the Marseillaise being also performed by Mr. Bremmall. And here the careful attention which had been bestowed in the construction of the roof and the strict regard paid to the best known principles of acoustics were eminently apparent, the music and voices being heard with beautiful and softened distinctness, the louder notes being replied to by a fine and perfect harmonic echo. The test was acclaimed as perfectly satisfactory, and M. Del Sarte was warmly congratulated upon the happy success which has attended that gentleman’s energetic and unceasing effort to place at our disposal a Concert Room in itself, so far as decoration is regarded, an exquisite bijou, and so perfect in its means of conveyance of vocal and instrumental harmony.

The concert having closed the health of the talented and spirited proprietor was proposed and heartily drunk, M. Del Sarte being highly complimented on the spirit which has enabled him in these somewhat dull times to incur the expence [sic] attending upon the construction of the Hall. The press, coupled with the name of Mr. Davies of this journal, was also proposed and responded to, and the company separated wishing every success to M. Del Sarte in an undertaking so well deserving the warmest support of all lovers of the choicest selections from the works of the most gifted musicians of the past or present age, and as we understand that M. Del Sarte intends to institute a Philharmonic Society on the same basis as those upon which the Kindred Societies in London are founded, we can have no doubt that at length the delightful means of enjoyment which such societies present will be open to those who have been so long lamenting the absence of such a society in our city.

We cannot conclude our notice of the New Concert Hall without noticing the great amount of skill and ability which Mr. F. Thomas, the architect has brought to bear upon the construction of the building, and the pains he has taken to make the Hall as it is second to no Concert Hall in finish or fitness to any in the colonies.

Source: M. DEL[?]RTE’S NEW MUSIC HALL. (1860, May 21). The Hobart Town Daily Mercury (Tas. : 1858 – 1860), p. 2.
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article19469620

View of Del Sarte’s building on the corner of Davey and Harrington Streets, Hobart Tasmania.
Formerly Del Sarte’s Concert Hall 1860s, then the offices of the IOOF Lodge 1870s, and offices of a law firm when this photograph was taken in 2011.
Photo © KLW NFC 2011 ARR

1861: Marriage to Ann Caroline Conroy
When Ann Caroline Conroy married Camille Auguste Del Sarte at St. Joseph’s Church, Hobart on 7th February 1861 (banns recorded a month earlier), he registered his rank or occupation as “Artiste” in the presence of witnesses Bartholomew Lynch and Mary Ann Whelan. She was 22 years old (born 1839?) and he was almost twice her age at 41 years.

Conroy, Ann Caroline
Record Type: Marriages
Gender: Female
Age: 22
Spouse: Delsarte, Camille Auguste [profession – Artiste]
Gender: Male
Age: 41
Date of marriage: 07 Feb 1861 [7th January registered on record]
Registered: Hobart
Registration year: 1861
Record ID:NAME_INDEXES:861520
Resource: RGD37/1/20 no 114
Archives Office Tasmania

1861-1874: nine children born to Ann and Camille Del Sarte
As the endeavour here was to establish the identity of the young boy in this mounted carte-de-visite photograph taken by Thomas J. Nevin at some point between 1867 and 1876, the detective work involved two assumptions: that he might have been a child of Ann and Camille Del Sarte, and that the child was about 3 yrs old. In order to establish which one, all nine births were researched, listed here:

1. DEL SARTE Francis Henry (1861-1863)
Birth: Harrington St. Hobart Tasmania 22 December 1861
Registered: Hobart 27 January 1862
Father: Camille Del Sarte professor of singing
Mother: Anne Caroline Del Sarte formerly Conroy
Source: Archives Office Tasmania RGD33/1/8 no 491
Death: Harrington St. Hobart 22 April 1863 of congestion of the brain & [?]
Age: 16 months
Informant: Joseph McLoughlin, friend
Source: Archives Office Tasmania RGD35/1/6 no 3868
NOTE: Cornelian Bay cemetery records a re-burial for Francis Henry Del Sarte on 22-Aug-1877.

2. DEL SARTE Marie Albertine (1863-1936)
Birth: Hobart Tasmania 25 June 1863
Source: Archives Office of Tasmania NAME_INDEXES:967720
Death: 9 March 1936 East Camberwell, Victoria, Australia. Age: 73
Marriage: Herbert Leslie STONEHAM
Active 1883-84 in Stoneham touring company

3. DEL SARTE Gustavus Rowland [sic – Rolland Augustus] (1864 -1865)
Birth: Hobart 21 November 1864
Resource: RGD33/1/9/ no 7341
Source: Archives Office of Tasmania
Death:22 November 1865
Source: PRO NSW Death Reg: 1227/1865
Newspaper notice: The Sydney Morning Herald Thu 23 Nov 1865 Page 1 Family Notices

“On the 22nd instant, at the residence of his parents, 136, William-street, Rolland Augustus Del Sarte, only son of M. Camille Del Sarte, aged 1 year.”

The name of this child was Rolland Augustus Del Sarte when he died, 1 year old in Sydney, NSW, although at birth he was registered at Hobart, Tasmania in 1864 as Gustavus Rowland Del Sarte.

Birth of Gustavus Rowland – [sic – Rolland Augustus] (1864)
Resource: RGD33/1/9/ no 7341
Source: Archives Office of Tasmania

4. DEL SARTE Leopold Zavier (1866-1936)
Birth: 11 June 1866 Woollomooloo NSW
Newspaper notice: The Cornwall Chronicle (Launceston, Tas. : 1835 – 1880)
Sat 23 Jun 1866 Page 8 Family Notices

“On Sunday June 16 at her residence. 136, William St., Woolloomooloo, Madame Del Sarte, of a son”

Death: 16 December 1936 Camberwell, Victoria
Age: 71
Source: PROVIC BDM Death Reg: 11008/1936
Occupation: Law Clerk; Residence: Camberwell
SERIES: Probate and Administration Files
CITATION:VPRS 28/ P3 unit 2913, item 285/000

5. DEL SARTE Henry John (1869-1869) – twin
Birth: 1869 Old South Head Road Woollahra NSW
Death: 1869 Woollahra NSW
Age: 6 months
Source: PRO NSW Death Reg: 2174/1869
Ryerson death notice Sydney Morning Herald 27August 1869

6. DEL SARTE Henrietta Daisy (1869-1869)- twin
Birth: 1869 Old South Head Road Woollahra NSW
Death: 24 August1869 Woollahra NSW
Age: 6 months
Source: PRO NSW Death Reg 2192/1869
Ryerson death notice Sydney Morning Herald 27August 1869

7. DEL SARTE Madalene [or Madaline] Ethel (1870-?)
Birth: 1870 Sydney
Marriage: 1918 to Charles Morell Wilson in Victoria
Death: unknown
Source: PRO NSW BDM Reg: 1241/1870

8. DEL SARTE Camille Frederick Charles (1873-1960)
Birth: Sydney NSW 3 March 1873
Newspaper notice: Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 – 1907)
Sat 15 Mar 1873 Page 29 Family Notices

“On the 3rd March, at her residence, Montmarte Villa, 123, William-street, Woolloomooloo, the wife of Monsieur Camille Del-Sarte, of a son”.

Death: 01 March 1960 Warracknabeal Victoria
Age: 87
Source: PROVIC BDM Death Reg: 21644/1960
Probate: 14 Apr 1960
Occupation: Salesman
SERIES: Wills
AGENCY: Master of the Supreme Court
CITATION:VPRS 7591/ P3 unit 302 item 550/639

9. DEL SARTE Ernest Ashley (1874-1967)
Birth: 1874 Sydney New South Wales
Death: 29 Oct 1967 Ferny Creek Victoria
Occupation: Manager
Source: PROVIC BDM Death Reg: 24342/1967
Ryerson death notice 29 October 1967 The Age (Melbourne) 4 November 1967
Probate: 07 May 1968; Date of death: 29 Oct 1967
SERIES: Probate and Administration Files
AGENCY: Registrar of Probates, Supreme Court
CITATION:VPRS 28/ P5 unit 35, item 670/523

By March 1873, when fifth son Camille Frederic Del Sarte (jnr) was born to Ann and Camille Del Sarte at their residence, Montmarte Villas, 123 William Street (between Palmer and Bourke Sts.) Sydney, four of their children had already died before reaching their second birthday. They naturally feared for this child’s survival too. On 23 May 1873, just weeks after the birth of Camille jnr, Camille Del Sarte got up a petition with fellow residents of the Montmarte Villas and sent it to the Mayor and Aldermen of the Sydney City Council, requesting they fix the overflow of effluent backing up behind the villas in Barnett Lane.


TRANSCRIPT (page 1, main page)

3 June 1873
William St. East Pet’n
Sewerage accomodation

“To the Worshipful Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Sydney in Council Assembled.
The Petitition of Monsieur C. Del Sarte and undersigned Residents of William Street Woloomoloo.
Most humbly showeth that a suitable drain pipe connecting our residences in William Street situated between Bourke and Palmer Streets, with the sewer at the rear of William Street (North side) or otherwise as may be deemed best, is very much required.
The drain pipe in Barnett Lane at the rear of our residences is not low enough to take away the surface water or drain on premises in wet weather and thereby causing us very much inconvenience and endangering the loss of health to our families, as likewise causing much nuisance.
The petitioners therefore humbly request that your Worship may take this matter into your favourable consideration and cause to be granted to us the above named favour.
And the petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray.
Sydney 29 day of May in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy three,
[Signature of C. Del-Sarte]
123 William Street

[Signatures and addresses of petitioners, residents of 117-129 Williams St., known as Montmarte Houseor Villas]

[Signatures of Trustees of Montmarte House William St.]

Source: Sydney Archives and History Resources
Unique ID A-00283358
Series Letters Received [Municipal Council of Sydney]
Parent CSA072901
Date 3rd June 1873
Date qualifier exact
Format Volume – Hardcover
Description Petition: By Monsieur C. Del-Sarte, 123 William St. concerning the need for a drain in William St. between Bourke & Palmer Sts. The drain in Barnett Lane not being sufficient. Signed by B. Murphy, Andrew Gribben, M. Lea, H. Seigel and others.
Link:https://archives.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/nodes/view/1084868

Montmarte House or Villas were located half-way up and on the right-hand side of William Street, hidden behind trees in this photograph taken between 1870 and 1875.

William Street, Sydney 1870-75
American & Australasian Photographic Company 1870-75
ON 4 Box 59 No 316
State Library of NSW
http://digital.sl.nsw.gov.au/

1877: Death of Camille del Sarte
By mid 1874, with the birth of yet another child, Ernest Ashley, Anne and Camille Del Sarte decided to quit Sydney, NSW and head back to Tasmania. They boarded the City of Hobart arriving at Hobart on 7th November 1874, accompanied by their five children. A little more than three years later, on 2nd July, 1877, Camille Del Sarte died suddenly, aged 60 years, of alcoholism and congestion of the lungs.

1877, deaths in the district of Hobart;
Tasmanian names index;NAME_INDEXES:1226560;
RGD35/1/9 no 568
https://stors.tas.gov.au/NI/1226560
https://stors.tas.gov.au/RGD35-1-9$init=RGD35-1-9p64

568 / 2’d July 1877 / Camille August Del Sarte (Died Macquarie Street) (Born Paris) / 60 years / Professor of Music / 1. Alcoholism, 2. Congestion of the lungs . . .

OBITUARY

TRANSCRIPTS

“DEATH OF MONS. DEL SARTE”
Among the music-loving public of Tasmania, and more especially that of the metropolis, no name was more familiar in, years gone by than that of Camille Del Sarte. But it has now to be recorded on the toll of the departed; for at one o’clock yesterday morning the distinguished music-master, after a very short illness, breathed his last at his residence in Macquarie-street, bronchitis being the immediate cause of death.

Camille Del Sarte was a native of Paris, but he arrived in this colony from the island of Java about 22 years ago. Soon after his arrival here he purchased what now forms the residence of the Venerable Archdeacon Davies, and for some years the deceased resided there. He had not been long in Hobart Town before his name as a practical and theoretical teacher of music became a household word in Tasmania; and so rapid was his early success in these branches of the divine art that in 1856 he had built for the purposes of his profession and at his own cost that substantial building in Harrington-street, now known as the Oddfellows’ Hall, but which was originally known as Del Sarte’s Rooms. The speculation was not, however, the success its enterprising proprietor had anticipated, and eventually he parted with the property. At the time of the volunteer movement, Mons. Del Sarte held the position of band-master in the Artillery corps, and within the last two years he was entrusted with the conductorship of the Hobart Town City Band.

About the year 1869 the deceased left Hobart Town and took up his abode in Sydney, and there for a time he had an excellent practise. Unfortunately, however, he was induced to enter into mining speculations, and these turning out unremunerative, Mons. Del Sarte lost a considerable sum of money. He remained in Sydney about seven years, and only returned to Hobart Town between two and three years ago. His long absence from the colony, however, had almost completely broken the connection which he had formerly made; and although his reputation as a master in his profession was as great as ever, he was not able to regain the high position which he had occupied before he left the colony. Deceased had long been subject to bronchitis; but the malady did not manifest itself in a serious form until Wednesday last, when Mons. Del Sarte was obliged to curtail his music lessons.

He continued to get worse daily, and, as we have already said, his life was brought to a close at one o’clock yesterday morning. Monsieur Del Sarte was a married man, and we regret to say that he has left behind him a sorrowing widow and five young children. The deceased was about 60 years of age.

Source: The Mercury (3 July 1877), 3
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8954267

“DEATHS”
DEL SARTE. – On the 2nd of July, at his late residence, 56 Macquarie-street, Camille Auguste Del Sarte, in the 60th year of his age. The funeral will take place from St. Joseph’s Church for Cornelian Bay Cemetery, at 2 p.m. THIS DAY, Wednesday, the 4th.

Source: The Mercury (4 July 1877), 1
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8954293

1877: The Del Sarte Fund
By November 1877, William Dunne had successfully organised subscriptions to a fund in aid of Camille Del Sarte’s widow Ann Del Sarte nee Conroy and her surviving children – mentioned as five in various reports of the Fund, those five presumably being Marie Albertine, Leopold Zavier, Madelene Ethel, Camille Frederick jnr, and Ernest Ashley Del Sarte.

Camille Del Sarte’s widow, Ann Del Sarte, advertised her home in Murray Street, Hobart for paying visitors during 1877 and 1878 as a way of making ends meet. She finally departed Hobart on the Tamar for Melbourne, arriving 27th November 1878 with three unnamed family members, presumably three of her children – not five – in tow. Had she left two behind in Hobart? All five of her children – Marie Albertine, Leopold Zavier, Madalene Ethel, Camille Frederick and Ernest Ashley Del Sarte, all born before 1875, settled in Victoria and NSW and lived into the 20th century. Marie and Leopold both died in 1936, Marline married in 1918, and Camille and Ernest died in the 1960s, but just three travelled with her to Melbourne in 1878.

Madalene Del Sarte (b. 1870) was most likely Madeline [sic] Ethel Del Sarte who married Charles Morell Wilson in Victoria in 1918. The five children, then, who were present with their mother Ann Del Sarte in 1877 when her husband and their father Camille Del Sarte died were – Marie Albertine (b. 1863), Leopold Zavier (b. 1866), Madeline Ethel (b. 1870), Camille Frederick jnr (b. 1873) and Ernest Ashley (b. 1874) Del Sarte.

A farewell concert was given to Camille Del Sarte on his intending departure to Sydney from Hobart in May, 1865, yet he does not seem to surface in Sydney until 1867 when he was listed as a professor of singing at his address, 33 Brougham St. (Woolloomoloo).  His obituarist, writing the day after his (Camille Del Sarte’s) death, seemed to think he did not leave Hobart until about 1869 (see Obituary above).  When Camille Del Sarte and his wife Ann Del Sarte did return to Hobart from Sydney on board the City of Hobart, 7th November 1874 , they were accompanied by their five children, according to shipping records.

Again, those five must have been Marie Albertine, Leopold Zavier, Madelene Ethel, Camille Frederick jnr and Ernest Ashley Del Sarte.

The remains of their first child,  Francis Henry Del Sarte, who lived just 16 months (December 1861 to April 1863), were removed from the old Hobart cemetery and re-interred at the Cornelian Bay cemetery, Catholic section on  22nd August 1877, a few weeks after his father’s death on 2nd July 1877.

The identity of this male child who sat so nicely for his portrait when Thomas J. Nevin photographed him at his studio, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart, and the date of his sitting is still no clearer,  though he would not have been photographed later than 1876, the year Thomas J. Nevin ceased using his commercial stamp modified only slightly from Alfred Bock’s of the 1860s which appears on the verso of the boy’s cdv. Given all the above information about the children’s birth dates, dates of death, and travel dates of the Del Sarte family which coincide with Thomas Nevin’s dates working at the Elizabeth St. studio, it seems less likely that he photographed a Del Sarte male child before the Del Sarte family departure from Hobart in 1865, since he used only his New Town studio stamp at that time prior to acceding Alfred Bock’s studio. It seems more likely that he photographed the one contender who was born in 1873, the very young Camille Frederick Charles Del Sarte jnr (b. March 1873 – d. March 1960 ) who could not have been more than three years old when Thomas Nevin photographed him in the early months of 1876, probably in the weeks before vacating the studio at 140 Elizabeth Street to join the civil service as Hall and Office Keeper at the Hobart Town Hall. Otherwise, it is just possible that this is not a Del Sarte child at all but a child from another family entirely, perhaps even a child of international visitors (!)

THE DEL SARTE FUND. (1877, November 8) The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 – 1954) p. 2.
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8957256

TRANSCRIPT

THE DEL SARTE FUND.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE MERCURY.
Sir, – I herewith enclose for publication in your advertising columns, a statement of the amount of subscriptions I received in aid of the widow and orphans of the late Mons. Del Sarte, and of the manner in which these subscriptions have been expended in establishing them in their present residence. Permit me at the same time to express the great gratification I feel that the appeal which was made on their behalf, not only was favourably responded to, but realised an amount far surpassing my most hopeful expectations The generous donors of this great charity have placed the widow and children of the late Mons. Del Sarte under an obligation of gratitude which should ever be remembered by them, and which should always manifest itself in their prayers for their benefactors in their steady and uptight conduct, and in the industry and care with which they utilise for their future welfare means of living which have been so fortunately placed at their disposal.

Personally, in so far as the appeal for this charity originated with me, I feel most thankful to all those kind friends who so promptly and so liberally contributed to it, and I sincerely wish them, as the reward of their charity, every spiritual and temporal blessing.

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
WILLIAM J. DUNNE.
Barrack Square, Nov. 7, 1877.

Source: Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 – 1954), Thursday 8 November 1877, page 2

A performance of Il Trovatore in September 1877 was also given in aid of Camille Del Sarte’s widow and children.

TRANSCRIPT

PERFORMANCE OF II TROVATORE.-The last of the series of amateur performances in aid of the widow and orphans of the late Mons. Del Sarte is to take place at the Theatre Royal on Thursday evening, the 13th inst., when Verdi’s opera, Il Trovatore, will be produced under Mr. F. A. Packer’s conductorship. His Excellency the Governor will be present. The production of such a favourite opera by local amateurs, and the object of the performance ought to be the means of attracting a crowded house.

Source: Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 – 1954), Thursday 6 September 1877, page 2

Six years later, Tasmanian citizens were once again asked to render her assistance. This notice was published in the Mercury, Wednesday 11 April 1883, page 2:

TRANSCRIPT

An Appeal.-We have been requested to bring under the notice of the charitable, and all friends and pupils of the late Mons. Del Sarte, the case of Mrs. Del Sarte, who is sadly in need of pecuniary assistance. In a letter just received by a lady residing at Hobart, a mutual friend states that Mrs. Del Sarte is in a very weak and almost helpless state, slowly recovering from gastric fever. Mr. W. A. Guesdon has kindly consented to act as treasurer of a fund being raised on behalf of Mrs. Del Sarte, and donations will also be thankfully received and acknowledged by Herr Schott.

Source: Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 – 1954), Wednesday 11 April 1883, page 2

1914: Death of Ann Del Sarte nee Conroy
Camille Del Sarte’s widow Ann Del Sarte nee Conroy died at her daughter’s home in Coburg, Victoria on 15th November 1914. Her daughter Marie Albertine Stoneham nee Del Sarte, the first child to survive of Ann and Camille Del Sarte’s nine children, was born in Hobart in 1863. She sought a judicial separation from her husband, musician Herbert Stoneham, in 1904. on grounds of cruelty and neglect of herself and her three children (Ann and Camille Del Sarte’s grandchildren). With the death of her mother Ann, and as the eldest of her siblings, Marie Albertine Stoneham nee Del Sarte (1862-1936) was the most likely of all her siblings to keep her parents’ family memorabilia, including photographs of her brothers such as this one of the young boy taken by Thomas Nevin, if indeed the child in the cdv under discussion here was one of her brothers.

Family Notices (1914, November 21). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), p. 1.
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article10818499

TRANSCRIPT

DEL-SARTE.—On the 15th November at the residence of her daughter Mrs. Stoneham, 45 Kendall street Coburg, Ann, relict of the late Camille Auguste Del Sarte (of the Imperial Academie of Musique and Opera National, Paris), aged 75 years. R.I.P.
“I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction ”
-(Interred privately, Fawkner Cemetery/ ) Hobart, Sydney. home and foreign papers please copy.

Family Notices (1914, November 21). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), p. 1.
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article10818499

Musical Works
These two compositions by Camille Del Sarte are most often cited as examples of his work still available in manuscript form (and extant). For a much more detailed list, including non-extant works, visit this page of Del Sarte’s works compiled by Graeme Skinner.

Le marceau galop (1867)

Le marceau galop (1867)
Le Marceau galop, composed and respectfully dedicated à Monsieur le Capitaine Galache et à messieurs les officieurs du vaisseau de sa majesteé impeériale Le marceau par Camille Del-Sarte, de L’Académie impeériale de musique et opéra national de Paris ([Sydney]: [For the author], [1867])
https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/230033151
https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/253250181 (DIGITISED)

My tears for thee must ever flow (1868)

My tears for thee must ever flow (1868)
My tears for thee must ever flow, poetry by George Linley, music by C. Del-Sarte, Imperial Academy of Music and Opéra National Paris (Sydney: J. A. Engel, Printer, [1868])
https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/33256811
https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/40758048 (DIGITISED – “FIFTH EDITION”)

Addenda

Camille Del Sarte’s family, France
PARENTS: Three children who survived to adulthood of Jean Nicolas Toussaint Delsarte and Aimée Albertine Roland at Cambrai, Nord, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France were François Alexandre Nicolas Chéry Delsarte (1811 -1871); Aimée Marie Louise Léopoldine Delsarte(1815-1861); and Camille Auguste Achille Del Sarte (1818-1877). Camille Del Sarte retained the separation of “Del” and “Sarte” in his surname rather than the “Delsarte” surname of his siblings, for reasons not discernible.

1. Camille Del Sarte’s eldest sibling was François Alexandre Nicolas Chéry Del Sarte
Now known as François Delsarte (1811 – 1871)
Born: 11 November 1811, Solesmes, France
Died: 20 July 1871, Paris, France
Education: Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse de Paris
Children: Marie Magdeleine Real del Sarte
Siblings: Aimée Delsarte and Camille Del Sarte

François Delsarte was a distinguished singer and teacher who performed at the courts of both Louis Philippe and Napoleon III. His wife Rosine, a musical prodigy, had been an assistant professor of solfège at the Conservatoire de Paris at the age of 13.

François Delsarte taught a system of oratory and expressive movement for actors, musicians, singers and dancers to aid the performer’s physical control which he categorised as eccentric, concentric, and normal, involving the head, torso, and limbs. American adherents of François Delsarte’s methods were Genevieve Stebbins (1857-1934), founder of the New York School of Expression, Ted Shawn (1891–1972) and Ruth St. Denis (1879-1968), precursors of American modern dance. James Morrison Steele MacKaye (1842- 1894), an American playwright and actor who studied under François Delsarte in Paris, lectured on the philosophy of ethics and “natural” acting in New York and Boston and was the first American actor to portray Hamlet in 1873 in London. Austro-Hungarian dance artist and theorist Rudolf von Laban (1879 -1958), considered the founder of Expressionist Dance in Germany, carried influence from Delsarte’s work to lay the foundations of dance notation in his 1928 publication, Kinetographie Laban, a system that came to be called Labanotation and is still used as one of the primary movement notation systems in dance (choreology).

In Francois Delsarte’s own words …
In Chapter 2 of Delsarte’s system of oratory (1893), titled “Definition and Division of Gesture”, his use of semiotics, transcribed as “semeiotic“, has laid down a critical path for modern and postmodern theories of performance. In his own words: –

Gesture is the direct agent of the heart, the interpreter of speech. It is elliptical discourse. Each part of this definition may be easily justified.

1. Gesture is the Direct Agent of the Heart.–Look at an infant. For some time he manifests his joy or sorrow through cries; but these are not gesture. When he comes to know the cause of his joy or sorrow, sentiment awakens, his heart opens to love or hatred, and he expresses his new emotion not by cries alone, nor yet by speech; he smiles upon his mother, and his first gesture is a smile. Beings endowed only with the sensitive life, have no smile; animals do not laugh.

This marvelous correspondence of the organs with the sentiment arises from the close union of soul and body. The brain ministers to the operations of the soul. Every sentiment must have its echo in the brain, in order to be unerringly transmitted by the organic apparatus.

Ex visu cognoscitur vir. (“The man is known by his face.”) The rôle of dissimulation is a very difficult one to sustain.

2. Gesture is the Interpreter of Speech.–Gesture has been given to man to reveal what speech is powerless to express. For example: I love. This phrase says nothing of the nature of the being loved, nothing of the fashion in which one loves. Gesture, by a simple movement, reveals all this, and says it far better than speech, which would know how to render it only by many successive words and phrases. A gesture, then, like a ray of light, can reflect all that passes in the soul.

Hence, if we desire that a thing shall be always remembered, we must not say it in words; we must let it be divined, revealed by gesture. Wherever an ellipse is supposable in a discourse, gesture must intervene to explain this ellipse.

3. Gesture is an Elliptical Language.–We call ellipse a hidden meaning whose revelation belongs to gesture. A gesture must correspond to every ellipse. For example: “This medley of glory and gain vexes me.” If we attribute something ignominious or abject to the word medley, there is an ellipse in the phrase, because the ignominy is implied rather than expressed. Gesture is then necessary here to express the value of the implied adjective, ignominious.

Suppress this ellipse, and the gesture must also be suppressed, for gesture is not the accompaniment of speech. It must express the idea better and in another way, else it will be only a pleonasm, an after conception of bad taste, a hindrance rather than an aid to intelligible expression.

Division of Gesture.
Every act, gesture and movement has its rule, its execution and its raison d’être. The imitative is also divided into three parts: the static, the dynamic and the semeiotic. The static is the base, the dynamic is the centre, and the semeiotic the summit. The static is the equiponderation of the powers or agents; it corresponds to life.

The dynamic is the form of movements. The dynamic is melodic, harmonic and rhythmic. Gesture is melodic by its forms or its inflections. To understand gesture one must study melody. There is great affinity between the inflections of the voice and gesture. All the inflections of the voice are common to gesture. The inflections of gesture are oblique for the life, direct for the soul and circular for the mind. These three terms, oblique, direct and circular, correspond to the eccentric, normal and concentric states. The movements of flection are direct, those of rotation, circular, those of abduction, oblique.

Gesture is harmonic through the multiplicity of the agents which act in the same manner. This harmony is founded upon the convergence or opposition of the movements. Thus the perfect accord is the consonance of the three agents,–head, torso and limbs. Dissonance arises from the divergence of one of these agents.

Finally, gesture is rhythmic because its movements are subordinated to a given measure. The dynamic corresponds to the soul.

The semeiotic gives the reason of movements, and has for its object the careful examination of inflections, attitudes and types.

Under our first head, we treat of the static and of gesture in general; under our second, of the dynamic, and of gesture in particular; and finally, under our third head, of the semeiotic, with an exposition of the laws of gesture….

In Chapter 7 of Delsarte’s system of oratory (1893), titled “A Series of Gestures for Exercises”, he proposes twelve types of emotions commonly expressed by orators and their codified movement patterns in declamatory performance.

Chapter VII. A Series of Gestures for Exercises.
Preliminary Reflections.

We know the words of Garrick:

“I do not confide in myself, not I, in that inspiration for which idle mediocrity waits.”

Art, then, presents a solid basis to the artist, upon which he can rest and reproduce at will the history of the human heart as revealed by gesture.

This is true, and it is as an application of this truth that we are about to consider the series, which is an exposition of the passions that agitate man, an initiation into imitative language. It is a poem, and at the same time it lays down rules through whose aid the self-possessed artist can regain the gesture which arises from sudden perturbation of the heart. It is a grammar which must be studied incessantly, in order to understand the origin and value of imitative expressions.

The development of the series is based upon the static, the semeiotic and the dynamic.

The static is the life of gesture; it is the science of the equipoise of levers, it teaches the weight of the limbs and the extent of their development, in order to maintain the equilibrium of the body. Its criterion should be a sort of balance.

The semeiotic is the spirit and rationale of gesture. It is the science of signs.

The dynamic is the action of equiponderant forces through the static; it regulates the proportion of movements the soul would impress upon the body. The foundation and criterion of the dynamic, is the law of the pendulum. The series proceeds, resting upon these three powers. The semeiotic has given the signs, it becomes æsthetic in applying them. The semeiotic says: “Such a gesture reveals such a passion;” and gesture replies: “To such a passion I will apply such a sign.” And without awaiting the aid of an inspiration often hazardous, deceitful and uncertain, it moulds the body to its will, and forces it to reproduce the passion the soul has conceived. The semeiotic is a science, the æsthetic an act of genius.

The series divides its movements into periods of time, in accordance with the principle that the more time a movement has, the more its vitality and power; and so every articulation becomes the object of a time.

The articulations unfold successively and harmoniously. Every articulation which has no action, must remain absolutely pendent, or become stiff. Grace is closely united to gesture; the manifold play of the articulations which constitutes strength, also constitutes grace. Grace subdues only because sustained by strength, and because strength naturally subdues. Grace without strength is affectation.

Every vehement movement must affect the vertical position, because obliquity deprives the movement of force, by taking from it the possibility of showing the play of the articulations.

The demonstration of movement is in the head. The head is the primary agent of movement; the body is the medium agent, the arm the final agent.


Three
agents in gesture are especially affected in characterizing the life, mind and soul. The thumb is the index-sign of life; the shoulder is the sign of passion and sentiment; the elbow is the sign of humility, pride, power, intelligence and sacrifice.

The first gesture of the series is the interpellation, the entrance upon the scene. The soul is scarce moved as yet, and still this is the most difficult of gestures, because the most complex. It must indicate the nature of the interpellation, its degree and the situation of the giver and receiver of the summons in regard to each other.

A study of the signs which distinguish these different shades will teach us the analysis of gesture.

Aside from simple interpellation, the series passes successively from gratitude, devotion, etc., to anger, menace and conflict, leaving the soul at the point where it is subdued and asks forgiveness.

The passional or fugitive type forms the constant subject of the study of this series.

The Series of Gestures Applied to the Sentiments Oftenest Expressed by the Orator.

First Gesture. Interpellation.
Interpellation embraces five steps:
The first consists in elevating the shoulder in token of affection. If the right shoulder, as in figure 2 with the right leg weak.
The second step consists in a rotary movement of the arm, its object being to present the epicondyle (elbow-joint) to the interlocutor. For this reason the epicondyle is called the eye of the arm.
The third stage consists in substituting the articulation of the wrist for the epicondyle. In making the forward movement of the body, the epicondyle must resume its natural place.
The fourth step consists in extending the hand toward the speaker in such a way as to present to him the extremities of the fingers.
The fifth step is formed by a rapid rotation of the hand.

Second Gesture.
Thanks–Affectionate and Ceremonious.
This gesture consists of six steps:
1. Consists in lifting the hand and lowering the head.
2. Consists in raising the hand to the hip.
3.The head inclines to one side, and the elbow at the same time rises to aid the hand in reaching the lips.
4. In this, the head resumes its normal position, while the elbow is lowered to bring back the hand to the same position.
5. In this, the hand passes from the horizontal to the vertical position, rounding toward the arm.
6. In this, the arm is developed, and then the hand.

Third Gesture.
Attraction.
In this gesture there are three steps:
1. The hand turns toward the interlocutor with an appealing aspect.
2. The hand opens like a fan with the little finger tending toward the chest.
3. The elbow is turned outward, and the hand passes toward the breast.

Fourth Gesture.
Surprise and Assurance.
1. This consists in elevating the shoulders, opening the eyes and mouth and raising the eyebrow; the whole in token of surprise.
2. Raise the passive hand above the chin, making it turn around the wrist.
3. The hand still passive, is directed toward the person addressed, the elbow being pressed against the body.
4. The arm is gradually extended toward the person addressed, while the hand is given an opposite direction; that is, the palm of the hand is toward him.

Fifth Gesture.
Devotion.
This gesture embraces seven movements:
1. This consists in raising the passive hand to the level of the other hand, but in an inverse direction.
2. This consists in turning back the hand toward one’s self.
3. This consists in drawing the elbows to the body, and placing the hands on the chest.
4. This is produced by taking a step backward, and turning a third to one side; during the execution of this step, the elbows are raised, and the head is lowered.
5. This consists in drawing the elbows near the body, and placing the hands above the shoulders.
6. This consists in developing the arms.
7. This consists in developing the hands.

Sixth Gesture.
Interrogative Surprise.
This surprise is expressed in two movements:
1. This is wholly facial.
2. This is made by advancing the hand and drawing the head backward.

Seventh Gesture.
Reiterated Interrogation.
This gesture signifies: I do not understand, I cannot explain your conduct to me. It embraces five steps:
1. This consists in placing both hands beneath the chin, and violently elevating the shoulders.
2. This consists in bringing the hands to the level of the chest, as if in search of something there.
3. This consists in extending both hands toward the interlocutor, as if to show him that they contain nothing.
4. This consists in extending one hand in the opposite direction, and letting the head and body follow the hand.
5. This consists in turning the head vehemently toward the interlocutor, and suddenly lowering the shoulders.

Eighth Gesture.
Anger.
This gesture is made in three movements:
1. This consists in raising the arm.
2. This consists in catching hold of the sleeve.
3. This consists in carrying the clenched hand to the breast, and drawing back the other arm.

Ninth Gesture.
Menace.
This gesture consists of a preparatory movement, which is made by lowering the hand while the arm is outstretched toward the interlocutor, then the finger is extended, and the hand is outstretched in menace.
The eye follows the finger as it would follow a pistol; this occasions a reversal of the head proportional to that of the hand.

Tenth Gesture.
An Order for Leaving.
This is executed:
1. By turning around on the free limb.
2. By carrying the body with it.
3. By executing a one-fifth sideward movement–the right leg very weak. All these movements are made by retaining the gesture of the preceding menace. Then only the menacing hand is turned inward at the height of the eye, at the moment when it is about to pass the line occupied by the head; the elbow is raised to allow the hand a downward movement, which ends in an indication of departure. In this indication the hand is absolutely reversed, that is, it is in pronation. Then only does the head, which has hitherto been lowered, rise through the opposition of the extended arm.

Eleventh Gesture.
Reiteration.
1. The whole body tends toward the hand which is posed above the head. The right leg passes from weak to strong.
2. The head is turned backward toward the interlocutor.
3. It rises.
4. The arm extends.
5. The hand in supination gives intimation of the order.

Twelfth Gesture.
Fright.
The right hand pendent. The left hand rises. Tremor. The first movement is executed in one-third; the body gently passes into the fourth, and as the fifth is being accomplished, the arm is thrust forward as if to repel the new object of terror.
At this moment a metamorphose seems to take place, and the object which had occasioned the fright, seems to be transfigured and to become the subject of an affectionate impulse. The hands extend toward this object not to repel it, but to implore it to remain; it seems to become more and more ennobled, and to assume in the astonished eyes of the actor, a celestial form–it is an angel. Therefore the body recoils anew one-fourth; the hands fall back in token of acquiescence; then, while drawing near the body, they extend anew toward the angel (here a third in token of affection and veneration). Then a prayer is addressed to it, and again the arms extend toward it in entreaty. (Here the orator falls upon his knees.)
The series can be executed beginning with the right arm or the left, being careful to observe the initial and principal movement, with the arms at the side where the scene opened. This gives the same play of organs only in an inverse sense.

Important Remarks.
Should any student despair of becoming familiar with our method, we give him three pieces of advice, all easy of application:
1. Never speak without having first expressed what you would say by gesture. Gesture must always precede speech.
2. Avoid parallelism of gesture. The opposition of the agents is necessary to equilibrium, to harmony.
3. Retain the same gesture for the same sentiment. In saying the same thing the gesture should not be changed.
Should the student limit himself to the application of these three rules, he will not regret this study of the Practice of the Art of Oratory.

Source: The Project Gutenberg EBook of Delsarte System of Oratory
https://www.gutenberg.org/files/12200/12200-h/12200-h.htm#p2-08

These images of the Delsarte system of expression, popularized in the 1880s, were published in The Popular Entertainer and Self-Instructor in Elocution (Chicago: Conkey, 1898):

On left: Disdain; on right: Remorse

On left: Repulsion; on right: Supplication

KEY TEXTS
*Delsarte system of expression (1887) by Stebbins, Genevieve; Delsarte, François, 1811-1871
Internet Archive: https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_B1caQYoO9G0C

*Delsarte system of oratory (1893) by Delaumosne; Shaw, Frances A; Delsarte, François, 1811-1871; Arnaud, Angélique, 1799-1884; Géraldy, Marie Delsarte; Berlioz, Hector, 1803-1869
Internet Archive: https://archive.org/details/delsartesystemof00delarich

*Every Little Movement: a Book about François Delsarte, the Man and his Philosophy, his Science and Applied Aesthetics, the Application of this Science to the Art of the Dance, the Influence of Delsarte on American Dance (1954) by Ted Shawn. Pittsfield, MA: Eagle Printing and Binding Company.

*Bibliothèque nationale de France
François Delsarte (1811-1871): works (150 resources in data.bnf.fr)
https://data.bnf.fr/fr/12288942/francois_delsarte/

*François Alexandre Nicolas Chéri DELSARTE dit François DELSARTE
https://www.artlyriquefr.fr/personnages/Delsarte%20Francois.html

François Alexandre Nicolas Chéri DELSARTE dit François DELSARTE
ténor et professeur de chant français
(Solesmes, Nord, 19 novembre 1811* – Paris 17e, 20 juillet 1871*)
Fils de Jean Nicolas Toussaint DELSARTE (Solesmes, 03 septembre 1778 – Solesmes, 08 décembre 1846), marchand cafetier, et d’Albertine Aimée ROLAND (1794 – Paris 5e, 06 juillet 1837) [mariés le 31 octobre 1810].

Frère d’Aimée Marie Louise Léopoldine DELSARTE (Cambrai, Nord, 22 décembre 1815* – Paris 9e, 08 septembre 1861*), pianiste [mère de Georges BIZET, compositeur)] ; et de Camille Auguste Achille DELSARTE (Cambrai, 08 juin 1818* – Hobart, Tasmanie, Australie, 02 juillet 1877), ténor léger, élève de son frère et professeur de chant, engagé début 1847 à l’Opéra-National (qui devint le Théâtre-Lyrique) il y débuta le 15 novembre 1847 en créant Gastibelza d’Aimé Maillart.

Epouse à Paris 3e le 04 juin 1833 Rosine Charlotte ANDRIEN (Paris 3e, 14 juillet 1817 – Paris 17e, 04 janvier 1891*), professeur adjoint de solfège femme au Conservatoire de Paris (1830 – démission 06 janvier 1838), fille de Martin Joseph ANDRIEN, basse de l’Opéra, et de Gabrielle PHILIPPY D’ESTRÉES ; sœur d’Atala Thérèse Annette ANDRIEN [épouse François WARTEL, ténor].

Père de Gustave Adrien DELSARTE (Paris 2e, 23 juillet 1836 – Paris 17e, 25 février 1879*), professeur de musique [épouse Hermine MESSNER] ; et de Marie Madeleine Blanche Geneviève DELSARTE (Paris 1er, 23 juin 1853 – 16 mars 1927), peintre, épouse à Paris 17e le 01 mars 1887* Désiré Louis RÉAL (Paris 5e, 30 octobre 1852 – Paris 17e, 13 janvier 1909), sculpteur [parents de Maxime Louis Camille RÉAL dit Maxime RÉAL del SARTE (Paris 17e, 02 mai 1888* – Paris 17e, 15 février 1954), sculpteur].

Elève de Choron puis, au Conservatoire de Paris, de Garaudé et de Ponchard l’aîné, où il obtint un 2e prix de vocalisation en 1828. Il débuta à l’Opéra-Comique en 1830, créa l’Hôtel des princes de Prévost au théâtre de l’Ambigu en avril 1831, puis joua le mélodrame au Théâtre des Variétés (fin 1833) où il resta trois ans. Puis il s’enrôla dans le saint-simonisme, renonça au théâtre, prit la place de maître de chapelle de l’église de l’abbé Châtel. Il ouvrit des cours de chant et donna des concerts historiques, dans lesquels il interpréta les chefs-d’œuvre lyriques du XVIIe et du XVIIIe siècle. Il fut bientôt l’un des maîtres les plus courus. Delsarte s’est fait connaître aussi comme compositeur par une messe d’un bon caractère et des mélodies vocales d’un grand style, parmi lesquelles il faut citer le Jugement dernier et les Stances à l’Éternité, qui reflètent la nature mystique de l’auteur. Il a publié encore, sous le titre d’Archives du chant, un recueil des plus beaux morceaux lyriques des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, reproduction fidèle des éditions originales, sans aucune adjonction concernant l’interprétation, mais avec une réalisation des basses chiffrées. Une de ses élèves, Angélique Arnaud, a écrit un livre sur lui (1882). Il était l’oncle de Georges Bizet.

Après avoir étudié le chant et la diction, il s’était consacré à des recherches sur le dynamisme et l’expression, sur le geste et la parole ainsi que sur les interactions qui peuvent naître de la combinaison des phénomènes mentaux, émotionnels et physiques. Ses travaux sont à l’origine des déductions « eurythmiques » d’Emile Jaques-Dalcroze et influenceront les théories de Rudolf von Laban et le style de Kurt Joos. Son système fait de Delsarte le précurseur de la modern dance.

Il est décédé à cinquante-neuf ans, en son domicile 88 boulevard de Courcelles à Paris 17e.

*American contemporary practitioner of the Delsarte System, Joe Williams,has set up a Facebook page devoted to the Delsarte method.

Left: R. Carjat – Bibliothèque nationale de France
French musician and dance teacher François Delsarte (1811-1871).
Right: François Delsarte par Paul Hadol, Caricature 1861

François Delsarte’s son Gustave Delsarte and daughter Marie continued to teach the Delsarte System in France on their father’s death. Marie Magdeleine Blanche Geneviève Del Sarte (1853-1927) was also a French painter.

2. In 1837, Camille Del Sarte’s sister Aimee DELSARTE (Del Sarte) married Adolphe Bizet, a hairdresser, wigmaker and singing teacher against the wishes of her family who considered him a poor prospect. Aimée Delsarte was an accomplished pianist, while her brother François Delsarte was a distinguished singer and teacher. Her son Georges Bizet, who was registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet (1838-1875), became a composer mostly of operas during his short life, and is best known for his final work Carmen, one of the most popular and frequently performed works in the entire opera repertoire.

DEL SARTE (Delsarte) Aimée Marie Louise Léopoldine Joséphine (1815-1861)
Birth: December 22, 1815 Cambrai, Nord, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
Death: September 1861 (Age 45) Paris, Paris, Île-de-France, France
Wife of Adolphe Armand Bizet
Mother of Georges Bizet (1838-1875)

Cabinet card image of French composer Georges Bizet (1838-1875).
TCS 1.2564, Harvard Theatre Collection, Harvard University

3. DEL SARTE Camille Auguste Achille (1818-1877)
Birth: 8 June 1818 Cambrai France
Tenor, composer and concert master
Death: 2 July 1877 Hobart, Tasmania
Source: Acte de naissance de Camille Auguste Achille, né le 8 juin 1818, de Jean Nicolas Toussaint Delsarte, marchand cafetier, demeurant 118 rue des Anglaises à Cambrai, et d’Aimée Albertine Roland (État-civil de la mairie de Cambrai (Nord), Acte no. 344).

A further selection of newspaper articles, 1852-1877
For details of Camille Del Sarte’s arrival in South Australia and musical activities in Adelaide prior to settling at Hobart in 1852, visit Graeme Skinner’s page “always under construction” on Camille Del Sarte and family at Australharmony (University of Sydney.)

For more links to family notices, books, sheet music, concerts, meetings at Del Sarte’s Rooms etc, follow the links at Trove on this list.

Hobart Town, Tasmania, 1850s-1860s:

“Shipping Intelligence. PORT OF HOBART TOWN. ARRIVALS”,
Colonial Times (17 December 1852), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8772575

Dec. 14 – Union brig, 150 tons, Maybee, from Melbourne, in ballast. Passengers – Messrs. Del Sarte, Chapman, Biggins, Beaumont, Mrs. Harries, Miss Watson and 21 steerage.

[Advertisement], The Courier (22 January 1853), 3
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2243332

[Advertisement], The Courier (10 June 1854), 3
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2246187

“CONCERT”, The Courier (7 June 1854), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2240628

“GRAND CONCERT”, The Courier (16 June 1854), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2246021

“TASMANIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO PARIS, 1855, NO XIV”,
The Courier (27 September 1855), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2491196

“MONS. DEL SARTE”, The Courier (2 April 1856), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2501359

The sale of this gentleman’s household and concert furniture, pianos, organs, &c., take place to-morrow, at the rooms, Harrington-street, at half-past ten for eleven o’clock, by Mr. W. A. Guesdon

.
“ANTONIO DELSARTE”, The Hobart Town Daily Mercury (23 August 1858), 3
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3250064

ANTONIO DELSARTE [sic] , one of the greatest musicians (we speak of science, not performance), and among the very first teachers of vocal music of the present day, has organised a concert for a charitable object, at which some of the chief musical amateurs in Paris – among others the Princesses de Chimay and de Czartoryaka – are to perform. [Antonio Del Sarte, is the son of an equilly eminent musician, Francois Del Sarte, and brother of our gifted citizen C. Del Sarte, whose musical talents are so well known and appreciated by the dancing Tasmanians.]

“M. DEL SARTE’S FAREWELL CONCERT”, Mercury (19 May 1865), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8832902

Sydney, New South Wales, 1860s-74:

“NEW MUSIC”, The Sydney Morning Herald (11 July 1868), 4
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13169282

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (12 September 1868), 8
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13172734

LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF THE EMPIRE . . .”, Empire (7 October 1868), 3

TRANSCRIPT

TO THE EDITOR OF THE EMPIRE.
Sir, – The art of music, in all its branches, is making so much progress in Australia, that the time seems to have arrived for the foundation of an Academy of Music.

It is well known that all the great cities of Europe and America possess such institutions ; and Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide must sooner or later possess similar advantages.

It is not, however, so well understood, that these institutions of the towns in Europe and America educate a certain number of pupils in singing gratuitously, after a previous examination as to their talent.

All the pupils in those academies are instructed: -1. In solfeggi, which in the colonies is always mistaken for singing lessons. 2. Formation of the voice. 3. Singing lessons, followed by instruction in vocal declamation, or in the art of acting; for what can be more painful than to see a singer on the stage, who does not know how to appear on it, who runs from right to left with exaggerated gesticulations, always the same, whether representing a prince or a peasant. This art of acting has learned and difficult rules, without the knowledge of which no one can become an actor.

In all the above named institutions this art has its professors, and classes attended by both sexes. The grace and ease of our recent Royal visitor have been much admired, and it is also well known who was his excellent instructor.

If I have been well informed, we have had here some artists who have received a salary of nearly £100 a week, when we have local voices as fresh, and as capable of uniting all desirable qualities for great singers. I therefore ask, why should we not have our opera ? And why should we not encourage native talent ? We should give honourable occupation, lucrative salaries, and we should do as well for the public, with our resources, nay better, and much cheaper than up to the present time we have done.

The only question is, who will pay the professors? The European academies are supported by their respective governments. Here it would be necessary to have a subscription. After a time an academy would be formed, which would include an opera, composed of pupils of talent, who would receive a diploma, through which they could become professors, and, without doubt, this academy would shortly be self-supporting. In the commencement of such an undertaking it is advisable not to ask for money in advance, for John Bull likes to know beforehand- what he will receive for his ” notes”. Then, I know, he loves to encourage talent.

I propose to give a quarter’s lessons in singing and vocal declamation gratis, admission to be obtained from me by application at my residence, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, between 10 and 12 a m, for the examination of pupils desirous of joining this class. After a time the parents. and friends of the pupils will be invited to hear the progress made.

I will also instruct six children on the some conditions.
This is the only letter I shall write on the subject.

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
DEL SARTE.
Old South Head Road, opposite St. Matthew’s Church, Paddington.

Source: Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 – 1875), Wednesday 7 October 1868, page 3
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60827971

ED: St. Matthias Anglican Church is at the top of Oxford St. near the junction of Queen’s Street and the entrance to Centennial Park. One or two buildings opposite might have been standing in 1868.

Hobart Town, Tasmania, 1874-77:

“Citizen’s Band”, The Tasmanian Tribune (24 November 1875), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article200369907

“THE CITY BAND”, The Mercury (5 February 1876), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8942888

“THE CITY BAND”, The Mercury (11 March 1876), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8943647

“THE CITY BAND”, The Mercury (18 March 1876), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8943815

“THE CITY BAND”, The Mercury (1 April 1876), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8944121

“LOCAL”, The Tasmanian Tribune (8 April 1876), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article200369568

“LOCAL”, The Tasmanian Tribune (20 May 1876), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article200366460

“CITY BAND”, The Mercury (27 May 1876), 2
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8945349

Source: Australharmony / Camille Del Sarte and family
Curator: Graeme Skinner. Copyright © Graeme Skinner 2014-2020

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