Our Tenth Anniversary

Ten years ago we started blogging about Tasmanian photographer Thomas J. Nevin (1842-1923).  We look forward to another two years at least as the project draws closer to completion. Contributions and donations are most welcome, and many thanks for your involvement.

Email all enquiries here.

ernevin1wm

Elizabeth Rachel Nevin nee Day (1847-1914)
Original by her husband Thomas J. Nevin ca. 1874
Photo copyright KLW FC Group  © KLW NFC Imprint ARR

Categories: Nevin Family Collections, Reviews | Tags: ,

Julia Clark must face up to academic fraud

A decade ago we began documenting online a very strange case of misattribution regarding the work of 19th century commercial photographer Thomas J. Nevin for the Colonial Government of Tasmania, specifically his provision of prisoner mugshots taken in the 1870s of habitual offenders convicted at trial, returned on arraignment, or discharged from various sites of incarceration: the Port Arthur Penitentiary, the Supreme Court Hobart, the Hobart Gaol (Campbell Street), and the Mayor’s Court at the Municipal Police Office, Hobart Town Hall.

We asked a simple question: “Where’s the proof?”
The extraordinary marker in this case of photographer misattribution is the recent proposition that an individual called A H. Boyd, Commandant of the Port Arthur prison from 1871 to December 1873 was the photographer of at least 83 estrays from thousands taken by Nevin in Tasmania in the 1870s, Those 83 estrays held in a collection at the National Library of Australia, Canberra, were accessioned and exhibited in T. J. Nevin’s name in the 1970s-1980s at the NLA, which the NLA has since re-catalogued as “Convict Portraits, Port Arthur 1874” with A. H. Boyd’s name as the “creator”. But Boyd had no photographic skills, training, knowledge or official mandate, and no known extant photographs when reputable historians in the decades 1970s-1980s researched and mounted an exhibition of these prisoner photographs as the work of Thomas J. Nevin (QVMAG 1977), publishing their findings in the 1980s-90s (Kerr, Stilwell, McPhee 1977-1992). Not one single photographic portrait of a prisoner – or a photograph in any other genre, nor indeed any official, historical document – has been produced by the proponents of the Boyd misattribution since then. We asked a simple question in 2005: “Where’s the proof ?” that A. H. Boyd took these prisoners’ photographs?

Less reputable voices emerged at the same time with an oppositional agenda to Kerr, Stilwell et al (Long, Reeder 1995), touting their amateur credibility to traditional photohistory commentators (Crombie, Ellis) as so much “new research” despite lack of evidence of any kind. Illogical as it seems, even more illogical was the promotion of this non-photographer A. H. Boyd into the annals of photohistory as an “artist”.

The most perverse of all the Boyd apologists emerged in 2005; this was an “interpreter” of heritage at the Port Arthur Historic Site on the Tasman Peninsula called Julia Clark. From the moment she saw these weblogs about Nevin, she began her scraping and plagiarising, taking an abusive poke at Nevin and his descendants along the way, and finally publishing it all as her “own” research as yet another credited “peer reviewed reference” to notch up on the CV, one of the drivers behind this type of anxiety which pushes fraudsters such as Clark to bravado heights of intellectual theft.

Julia Clark must face charges of academic fraud sooner or later. She has thrown essays and articles in the face of librarians and museum workers since 2007, assuring them that her belief in the existence of a photographer attribution to Mr A. H. Boyd is hypothetically possible and so should be shared by them. So what proof has she found during the last ten years? Nothing. Not one single iota of evidence, except the fake inscription on a photograph of a prison building, which we documented at length on these blogs in 2009-2010 . This is the “proof” (see photo below) of all she has found in ten years since she first set her game in play. On the lower margin is a pencilled inscription in a modern hand – “Enlargement from a stereoscopic view by A H Boyd Esq.” scribbled onto an enlargement of a stereoscopic landscape view of the Port Arthur prison, taken in 1873 by Samuel Clifford and Thomas Nevin, reproduced by the Anson Brothers photographers in an album  published in 1889, held at the State Library of NSW (Views in Tasmania Vol II. (PXD511/ f10). The inscription is a fake, put there sometime between 1984 and 1995 at the instigation of Chris Long, the originator of the myth that A. H. Boyd was THE photographer of these Tasmanian prisoner mugshots instead of  T. J. Nevin, the real photographer (or any other real photographer, for that matter, in Nevin’s cohort). Chris Long blamed difficulties with his editor Gillian Winter (TMAG, 1995) and rumours spread by A. H. Boyd’s descendants for publishing this furphy. Chris Long had certainly not heard of any so-called “Port Arthur photographer” by the name of A. H. Boyd, amateur or otherwise, when he submitted a draft copy of his list of early Tasmanian photographers to Dan Sprod, former Chief Librarian at the National Library of Australia (17th July 1983, NLA Dan Sprod MS 8429 Box 1): T.J. Nevin’s name on that list, however, is asterisked “to indicate the photographer’s work survives in reasonable quantities.”

This is it, this is the only so-called evidence of Boyd’s photography the NLA has on filea detail of a photograph of a corner of the image of a Port Arthur prison building with the fake inscription, not even fully visible – “Enlargement from a stereoscopic view by A H Boyd Esq.“. It is not a photograph of a man in prison clothing. It is not a portrait of a prisoner. But that’s all Julia Clark has to offer. There is nothing else. Accompanying the printed photograph is Julia Clark’s garrulous, gossipy and offensive essay, devoid of any original research by her and largely derived from ours which – with the bravado of a thief who has got something for nothing – she used to finesse her way into the hearts and minds of librarians, and supervisors of a PhD program.

Above: One corner of a photograph of a building with a fake inscription is all Julia Clark has got to “prove” A. H. Boyd was a photographer of convicts.
Held at the NLA in Nevin’s file
Photo taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photos copyright KLW NFC 2015 ARR
NLA CATALOGUE
[Nevin, T. J. : photography related ephemera material collected by the National Library of Australia]
Bib ID 3821234
Format Book
Description 1 folder of miscellaneous pieces. 
Series Australian photographer files
Full contents File contains material such as accession sheets, listings of works biographical material and correspondence related to convict portraits. 
Subjects Nevin, Thomas J., – 1842-1923.  |  Photographers – Australia.

Impersonation of Nevin descendant
The “essay” by Clark pictured here is unsigned. A copy was sent to this weblog by Head of Pictorial at the NLA, Linda Groom. It contained numerous vitriolic, personal attacks on a Nevin descendant by name, who requested all such references removed from any association with this disrespectful, amateurish student called Julia Clark. A further reason for requesting all references to the Nevin descendant be removed was the attempt by Clark to insinuate some sort of collusion, even consent from the Nevin descendant. The essay, as pictured here, shows evidence of those deletions (e.g. footnote 37). The fact that it is sitting in Nevin’s file – unsigned by Clark – is tantamount to impersonation of implied but absent and unnamed co-authors.

These paltry documents by Julia Clark – the essay, more images of the fake inscription on the prison building photograph, and a copy of the subsequent “peer-reviewed” article (Journal of Australian Colonial History, Vol 12, 2010, p77-97) – are located in [Nevin, T. J. : photography related ephemera material collected by the National Library of Australia]. The “peer-reviewer” was her University of Tasmania lecturer  by 2010, Hamish-Maxwell Stewart, a member of the JACH board (Murdoch University), who can best be described as the tail wagging the dog regarding the Boyd misattribution. His current role as “UTAS Research Integrity, Adviser A/Prof Hamish Maxwell-Stewart, Associate Dean, Research Arts” is like trusting the wolf to guard the hen house.

Julia Clark’s “peer-reviewed” article not only accused Nevin’s descendants of being “strident” because we dared to blog about Thomas J. Nevin’s career in the age of the internet, it also adopted a tenor of cosy familiarity with Nevin family members, referring to Thomas Nevin’s brother as “Jack” which only family members used and still use. Devoid of any theoretical basis for actually reading photographic images, Clark ran a lengthy descriptive commentary on the State Library of NSW’s collection of  1870s photographs of prisoners taken by T. J. Nevin (not digitised, Mitchell Collection) which we had individually photographed for this blog in 2009. No courtesy email, no requests for permission to reproduce our texts, images and information from Clark, just the delusion that she will get away with it so long as she networks the “right people”.

These documents by Julia Clark have been placed in Thomas Nevin’s Photographer file at the NLA as if they pertain to Nevin’s work. They don’t. They pertain to Julia Clark’s desperate ego-driven attempt to get attention from the NLA librarians to revise – in her name on their catalogue entry against each and every prisoner mugshot - their long-standing catalogue header and attribution to T. J. Nevin as the photographer of 1870s Tasmanian prisoners, which the NLA calls “Convict Portraits, Port Arthur, 1874“. Her documents should be removed instead to her own NLA file as a dead-end anomaly. She should be recognised for what she is – just another student.

Webshots 2005 and 2007 of NLA catalogue entries, 
Creator: Nevin, Thomas J., 1842-ca. 1922.
Title: Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874 [picture] / Thomas J. Nevin.
Date: 1874.

From the 1990s when these photographs of convicts first appeared on online at the NLA, the catalogue entry looked like this, with T. J. Nevin’s name in the header as creator of the library’s collection of “Convict Portraits, Port Arthur, 1874″. The letter below from librarian Margy Burn, dated 17 July 2007, indicates total ignorance of this fact.

Letter located in [Nevin, T. J. : photography related ephemera material collected by the National Library of Australia]
Bib ID 3821234

Above: a letter from NLA librarian and reader’s assistant of the Australian Collection, Margy Burn, to this weblog, who seriously suggested putting our weblog URL onto the revised online catalogue in opposition to Clark’s essay, choosing to ignore printed publications sitting on the shelves in the NLA’s Pictorial section such as The Dictionary of Australian artists : painters, sketchers, photographers and engravers to 1870, ed. Joan Kerr (1992). which document Nevin’s work (pp 568-9) and which would have been an appropriate citation. Why the online viewer needs any citational help raises serious questions about the professionalism of Margy Burn, since no other catalogue entry of the millions online at the NLA references any students’ essays. The catalogue entry as it now stands is laughable. It is an advertisement for Clark’s student essay published by the JACHS which the reader has to purchase. If ever there is evidence of corporate psychopathy, this catalogue entry against every mugshot of a Tasmanian prisoner held at the National Library of Australia has got to be it.

Julia Clark’s Munchhausen by Proxy Syndrome
The National Library of Australia has to face up to hard facts: Julia Clark is playing out personal, sociopathic, intellectual and emotional anxieties by committing fraud, using T. J. Nevin – and his descendants – as her focus, target and complaint. She is of “bad character” as the colonials used to say. She is also mentally unstable. In the range of syndromes where fraud is the means, her repeated attempts to make herself believable with pages and pages of drivel pilfered and masticated to her taste from the internet, and mainly from our weblogs, falls within the scope of Munchhausen syndrome by proxy.

As Margaret Anderson relates, Julia Clark’s Tasmanian debut took on the identity of Aboriginal activist versus the establishment. Her Baron Munchhausen was historian Henry Reynolds who was accused of fabrication of black history by opponent Keith Windshuttle (1998). This episode sealed Julia Clark’s mind set of how history wars are played. Her next Munchhausen by proxy episode, relevant here, was fuelled by an innocent request in an email to the Port Arthur Historic Site from a Nevin descendant for further information about a piece of Port Arthur souvenir ware, a cruet, held in the Nevin family collections. By this time, Clark had an “interpretation” job at the Port Arthur heritage site. The request, we can report from a thousand miles away with the cruet in our hands which she had never seen, was met with self-righteous, brusque responses from an openly hostile but fascinated Julia Clark, claiming her opinion was the right one. This was augmented with some totally useless, blurry photographs of a tea set sent to us “courtesy of…” which of course we ridiculed. She knew then she had found her next complaint, the very ordinary but very real 1870s commercial and police photographer Thomas J. Nevin, one with biographers (conveniently deceased) and a curatorial history, not to mention descendants, those mainlanders with such a culturally significant name and legacy.

If the Henry Reynolds-Keith Windshuttle episode had shown Julia Clark what mind-set and modus operandi to adopt with regard to brawling with the establishment over Tasmanian Aborigines, she now had a good excuse to get closer to Reynolds by enrolling in a PhD at the University of Tasmania under his co-supervision, this time using convicts in the oppositional dialectic of convict versus photographer, criminals versus clean-skins, working class versus colonial middle class, government official (i.e. her man of the match, Commandant A. H. Boyd), versus the artist photographer: or, as it played out, it became Clark and the convicts and bosses of the Port Arthur prison heritage site (past and present) versus Nevin’s convicts’ photographs, their custodians in the public collections, and Nevin’s descendants.

The title of her PhD thesis? She has chosen such a unique title: Through a Glass Darkly: Photographs of Colonial Convicts  (UTAS, History begun 17/9/2013). Good luck with Google trying to make that title rise in the rankings. And the subtitle? Here’s a suggestion:

Through a Glass Darkly
An Historical Novel Based on True Events that Never Happened.
by Julia Clark, perennial student and septuagenarian
West Hobart Town
Little Tasmania

Fraud begets fictions, no matter how true they become in the minds of believers. The Munchhausen figure Julia Clark next turned to for control by proxy of her complaint was the publisher of the Boyd furphy, list-maker of an A-Z guide to Tasmanian photographers 1840-1940 (TMAG 1995), a ham radio enthusiast from Melbourne called Chris Long. His A-Z index was not simply copied from substantial previous photohistories (eg Kerr et al, Alan Davies etc), his own anxieties at being regarded as a pretentious fraud and plagiarist were projected onto Julia Clark with such force, she has become his mouthpiece – that is, in the rare moments when he isn’t ranting and raving over the air waves or on Facebook with all manner of foul abuse. His nonsense has compromised a generation of students interested in forensic and historical police photography, especially Melbourne dealer and NLA valuer, Warwick Reeder.

Professor John Bradshaw from Monash University defines the Munchhausen problem in academia in these terms:

Deliberate fraud, and I never would really ‘spoof’ my colleagues, even in temporary jest, is both fairly frequent in, and highly destructive of, the edifice of science. There is the notorious recent case of a professor of palaeontology who is said to have bought fossils from rock shops and sent them individually to a range of eminent colleagues elsewhere, with the claim that they all came from a particular, rather unlikely locality. The eminent colleagues, scenting a free publication (and unfortunately the bean counters of science management reward by quantity, not quality) were happy to say ‘how very interesting’, and have their names added to the offender’s latest paper, as a freebee. How the mighty fell! …
Henry Poincarre claimed that science, like a house, is built of bricks. Such bricks are said to be objective, value-free observations of unbiased, disinterested (though never uninterested) individuals. It isn’t. It is an intensely human enterprise, subject to all the ambitions, jealousies, animosities, prejudices, and even sense of fun, of its participants….
In psychiatry, there is a rare condition called Munchhausen Syndrome, which involves repeated fabrication, or pretence of physical illness, usually acute, dramatic and convincing, by a patient who wanders from hospital to hospital seeking treatment, and attention. Patients may simulate many physical disorders, and bear the scars of repeated, unsuccessful, surgery; they are usually intelligent and resourceful, and differ from malingerers because, although their deceits and simulations are conscious, their motivations for forging illness and quest for attention, are largely unconscious. Munchhausen Syndrome by proxy is an even more bizarre variant, where the individual’s child may be used as a surrogate patient; the parent may even injure the child to simulate disease.
I wonder whether, one day, someone will turn up familial Munchhausen Syndrome by proxy, perhaps even involving pets? Maybe it’s no coincidence that Munchhausen Syndrome is anyway, itself a kind of fraud.

Source: Ockham’s Razor
Fun, Fraud and Fabrication in Science and the Arts
Sunday 6 August 2000 8:45AM 
http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/ockhamsrazor/fun-fraud-and-fabrication-in-science-and-the-arts/3470648

Julia Clark’s violation of NLA copyright 2014
This weblog has documented Julia Clark’s fraud as a PARASITIC attribution, perhaps too kindly, since her latest fraud offense is bolder than ever, but it might just elucidate Julia Clark’s fraudulent behaviour to the crowd she has gathered as her campaign of defamation of Nevin’s descendants escalates incrementally towards … what? Climax/finishing the thesis/graduation/ winning the game/ relieving the itch? Is it going to happen? It’s very doubtful. Fraud is a serious issue. Nonetheless, quite sure in her mind now that she has succeeded in making everyone in the museum and library business believe that A. H. Boyd was not only a photographer when there is no evidence to be found anywhere, but also THE photographer of convicts, Julia Clark has used the Tasmanian Historical Research Association as her fall-guy by persuading them to publish an essay in their December 2014 journal issue. Her refrain in every article, and in this one too, is that if she can’t find a document, it never existed in the first place. This deception neatly covers her laziness in not searching for authentic historical archival documents in libraries and museums, and her assumption that if the information isn’t visible on our weblogs, we haven’t found any either, which indicates clearly our weblogs as her primary sources. Her article shamelessly scrapes our Nevin weblogs (we recorded her three thousands clicks on our article about Henry Singleton), and fills up page after page with mindless trivia about police and and petty crime, until it gallops to the conclusion with the only reason for writing it at all: to include her mutilated copy of a photograph of a convict called George Brown, with her own attribution to A. H. Boyd, and source as the NLA’s digital code URL nla.pic-vn4269860, the original of which has been online at the National Library of Australia since the 1990s.

This is the NLA’s one and only photograph of prisoner George Brown, taken by Thomas Nevin at the Municipal Police Office in February 1874 on Brown’s discharge from the Hobart Gaol. The full record online reflects Julia Clark’s anxiety at not getting enough attention – as a student!

FULL NLA RECORD:
Title George Brown, per M. [i.e. Maria] Soames, taken at Port Arthur, 1874 [picture]
Date 1874.
Extent 1 photograph on carte-de-visite mount : albumen ; 9.4 x 5.6 cm. on mount 10.5 x 6.3 cm.
Context Part of Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874 [picture]
Series Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874.
Notes No photographer name or studio stamp appears on these photographs. Formerly attributed to Thomas J. Nevin, the portraits are now considered more likely to have been taken by A.H. Boyd. See: Julia Clark. A question of attribution: Port Arthur’s convict portraits in Journal of Australian Colonial History, Vol 12, 2010, p77-97.
Part of collection: Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874.
Gunson Collection file 203/7/54.
Title from inscription on reverse.
Inscription: title and “150”–In ink on reverse.
Condition: Slight foxing.
Also available in an electronic version via the Internet at: http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-vn4269860
Subject Brown, George — Portraits.
Convicts — Tasmania — Port Arthur — Portraits.
Occupation
Convicts.
Other authors
Boyd, A. H. (Aldolarius Humphrey), 1829-1891.
Identifier nla.pic-vn4269860
Bib idvn4269860
Call number(s)
PIC P1029/3 LOC Album 935 *

George Brown was never sent to Port Arthur. The Tasmanian police gazette tells a very different story:

Warrant for the arrest of George Brown per Maria Soames, 5th February 1869.

Warrant for the arrest of Thomas Wilson identical with George Brown per Maria Soames, 18th June 1869.

George Brown as Thomas Wilson was photographed on discharge from the Hobart Gaol by Thomas J. Nevin, 11 February, 1874. Source:  Tasmania Reports of Crime Information for Police 1871-1885. J. Barnard, Gov’t Printer.

This is the modified photo which Julia Clark has photoshopped and published with the fake number “38” on the front, attribution to her fantasy photographer Commandant A. H. Boyd, and NLA identifier URL  nla.pic-vn4269860.  George Brown was not sent to Port Arthur, nor was he exposed to the reviled bully A. H. Boyd in any context.

Detail of our photograph below (6 Feb 2015)
Tasmanian Historical Research Association, page 85 December 2014
Julia Clark’s photoshopped photograph from the NLA Collection of convict George Brown with fake “38” transposed on recto; false attribution to A. H. Boyd, and Port Arthur as the wrong place of incarceration. The NLA  Identifier she uses is nla.pic-vn4269860
Photo taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photo copyright KLW NFC 2015 ARR

Tasmanian Historical Research Associaton, page 85 December 2014
Julia Clark’s photoshopped photograph from the NLA Collection of convict George Brown with fake “38” transposed on recto; false attribution to A. H. Boyd, and Port Arthur as the wrong place of incarceration.
The NLA  Identifier she uses is nla.pic-vn4269860
Taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photo copyright KLW NFC 2015 ARR

There is only ONE photograph of George Brown at the NLA – we checked the entire collection in situ on Friday, 6th February, 2015. So why has Julia Clark photoshopped the NLA photograph? Does excessive anxiety about the false A. H. Boyd attribution warrant such obsessive mutilation? She has put the number “38” on the front of the photograph of George Brown where there is no number on the NLA item. On the verso of the NLA photograph of George Brown is the number “150”. And the only photograph of a convict at the NLA which bears the number “38” is that of Duncan McDonald on its verso. The QVMAG holds a cdv photograph of convict Thomas Jackson per Layton 4 which bears the number “38” on the recto, written on the front by 20th century archivists during copying and dispersal of hundreds of these cdvs to other public collections (complete list received here in 2009). The number “38” on Clark’s photoshopped image is bright black. It was constructed from the numbers on the recto of other photographs of prisoners – the “38” from the “138” of George Robinson’s  and the “3” from Bewley Tuck’s held at the QVMAG (we can back track this process easily to each number and photo) – thereby committing a modification of an image belonging to the National Library, by fraudulent means, for fraudulent purposes.

Some of the extant prisoner or convict “portraits” (the term aestheticises what is a vernacular item) were stamped verso with Nevin’s Royal Arms insignia stamp to register his copyright with the Customs and Patent Office and to access his commission from both the Hobart Municipal Council (Lands and Survey Dept) and Municipal Police Office (Municipal Fund.) Copyright endured absolute for 14 years on submission of two samples under the Merchandise Marks Act 1864. One photograph per batch of 100 was stamped for this reason while Nevin was still working from his studio in Elizabeth St. Hobart and visiting the Hobart Gaol and Supreme Court at Oyer sessions. After his appointment to full-time civil service in 1876, the stamp was unnecessary. The NLA convict photographs are loose duplicates from the original half-dozen or so printed by Nevin from his negative of a single capture. They have been lovingly transcribed verso by an archivist in the 1900s – probably for exhibition – with a generic date, 1874, and the convict’s ship of arrival, all for the information of tourists and museum visitors. They were accessioned at the NLA as a collection from the QVMAG, Launceston, found amongst records from the Sheriff’s Office, Hobart Gaol, recorded with verso transcriptions by the Benevolent Society in the early 1900s for display in government photographer John Watt Beattie’s convictaria museum and donated to the NLA by Dr Neil Gunson in the 1960s as government estrays (Dan Sprod papers NLA MS 2320 1.5.64 Missionary history). Hundreds of Nevin’s six or so duplicates from his single negative taken of a prisoner on arrest, arraignment and discharge exist in national and State collections (QVMAG, SLNSW, TAHO, TMAG, NLA, PCHS, private collections), some still pasted to the criminal’s record sheet.  But this is the one and only extant photograph of George Brown at the NLA, catalogued in the album and online as nla.pic-vn4269860 which we inspected and photographed on February 6th, 2015:

Identifier nla.pic-vn4269860: the 1900s archivist number on verso is “150”
Verso of the NLA photograph by Thomas J. Nevin, February 1874 of prisoner George Brown as Thomas Wilson. 
Taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photos recto and verso copyright KLW NFC 2015 AR

Fraudulent pretensions
The essay by Julia Clark in this issue of the THRA journal, December 2014, directly follows a memoir by the former Governor of Tasmania, Sir Guy Green, AC, KBE, CVO who was the Governor of Tasmania from 1995 to 2003. He was the first Tasmanian-born governor of the state, although not the first Australian-born. How shameful for the THRA to be the victim of Julia Clark’s fraudulent pretensions in such illustrious company.

Infringement of Moral Rights (NLA)

What are moral rights?

Australian copyright law sets out a separate and additional set of rights called moral rights. Moral rights give certain creators and performers the right:

to have their authorship or performership attributed to them;
not to have their work falsely attributed to someone else; and
not to have their work treated in a derogatory way.
Moral rights should always be considered if you are re-using and altering works (for example, through editing, cropping or colourising) and you should ensure that attributions are clear and reasonably prominent.

RELATED POSTS main weblog

Categories: Attribution Issues, KLW NFC Photography, National Library of Australia | Tags: , , , , , , ,

Portraits of older women by Thomas Nevin 1870s

This selection of studio portraits taken by Thomas J. Nevin in the early 1870s of otherwise unidentified older women includes just one whose name is inscribed verso: Mrs Morrison. Who might she have been? A servant, a farmer, a post-mistress, some relation to Askin Morrison, ship owner, of Morrison Street, opposite Franklin Wharf, Hobart? Or Mrs Morrison, teacher of Kangaroo Point whose health had forced her to retire (Mercury, 6 December 1872).  Perhaps she was Mrs Ellen Morrison, licensee of the Launceston Hotel, Brisbane St. on a visit south to Hobart? Whoever this sitter was, she appears to have worked hard all her life, no fuss or frills about it.

The business-like stare

Full length cdv on plain mount: Mrs Morrison (name inscribed verso) wore a three-quarter length, light-coloured, thick check-weave shawl pinned at the neck with a brooch over a white scarf for this important occasion. Her dark dress shows braiding  in rows on the bodice and cuffs. She had pinned a thin plait over her head at the back. Her scowling stare straight at the camera under thunderous eyebrows might suggest excitement at having her likeness taken, a rare event perhaps and possibly an expensive one, or fascination with process, or simply impatience with the ever affable, rather humorous, and good-looking thirty-ish Mr. Nevin.

STUDIO DECOR: Mrs Morrison sat on Nevin’s low chair covered with shiny material, her left arm resting on his table with the griffin-shaped legs. Noticeably absent from the table is any decoration, such as a vase or book, which just might indicate that Nevin charged a little extra for flowers which his assistant would then hand-tint, but the client declined the offer. Or perhaps it was winter when flowers were not available. Behind the table hangs the backdrop sheet painted with the usual vista of tiles on a patio terrace, an Italianate balcony, and a river meandering through a valley in the distance, partially obscured by the drape.The carpet pattern of lozenges and chain links features in some but not all of these full-length portraits.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca. 1870-1875.
Verso inscribed “Mrs Morrison” in black ink with studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q14529

Verso: Full length cdv on plain mount : Mrs Morrison (name inscribed verso) wore a three-quarter length, light-coloured, thick check-weave shawl pinned at the neck with a brooch over a white scarf for this important occasion. Her dark dress shows braiding  in rows on the bodice and cuffs. She had pinned a thin plait over her head at the back. Her scowling stare straight at the camera under thunderous eyebrows might suggest excitement at having her likeness taken, a rare event perhaps and possibly an expensive one, or fascination with process, or simply impatience with the ever affable, rather humorous, and good-looking thirty-ish Mr. Nevin.

STUDIO DECOR: Mrs Morrison sat on Nevin’s low chair covered with shiny material, her left arm resting on his table with the griffin-shaped legs. Noticeably absent from the table is any decoration, such as a vase or book, which just might indicate that Nevin charged a little extra for flowers which his assistant would then hand-tint, but the client declined the offer. Or perhaps it was winter when flowers were not available. Behind the table hangs the backdrop sheet painted with the usual vista of tiles on a patio terrace, an Italianate balcony, and a river meandering through a valley in the distance, partially obscured by the drape. The carpet pattern of lozenges and chain links features in some but not all of these full-length portraits.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca. 1870-1875.
Verso inscribed “Mrs Morrison” in black ink with studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q14529

Hat, bag and umbrella

Full length cdv on plain mount: A mature woman [unidentified] wearing a short thick jacket with six metallic buttons over a dark dress buttoned up from the hem, a flat hat decorated with a large floral arrangement, and a brooch on a dark ribbon at her throat. She decided to keep her outdoor possessions in view for the capture, her closed umbrella and handbag held tight in gloved hands. She sat on Nevin’s low chair covered with a shiny material, her left arm resting on the table with the griffin-shaped legs. No flowers or books were placed on the table, perhaps not to obscure the painted wall hanging behind with Italianate tiling and balcony giving onto a river scene which is very clear in this photograph. The drape is on the viewer’s left, whereas in others, the drape is on the right in front of the wall hanging. This sitter ponders the experience by directing her frontal gaze slightly to the left of the camera, her lips pressed together and cheeks puffed out as though holding her breath.

Studio portrait by Thomas J. Nevin ca. 1870-75, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart
Scans courtesy © The Private Collection of Marcel Safier 2005 ARR.
NOTES Courtesy of owner Marcel Safier:
Subject not known. It came in an album I bought from a Tasmanian dealer at a Sydney collector’s fair in 2001. The pencil numbering on the rear is my own cataloguing system. The mount is 64mm x 102mm … It very closely resembles the mounts used by Bock previously.

Verso: Full length cdv on plain mount: A mature woman [unidentified] wearing a short thick jacket with six metallic buttons over a dark dress buttoned up from the hem, a flat hat decorated with a large floral arrangement, and a brooch on a dark ribbon at her throat. She decided to keep her outdoor possessions in view for the capture, her closed umbrella and handbag held tight in gloved hands. She sat on Nevin’s low chair covered with a shiny material, her left arm resting on the table with the griffin-shaped legs. No flowers or books were placed on the table, perhaps not to obscure the painted wall hanging behind with Italianate tiling and balcony giving onto a river scene which is very clear in this photograph . The drape is on the viewer’s left, whereas in others, the drape is on the right in front of the wall hanging. This sitter ponders the experience by directing her frontal gaze slightly to the left of the camera, her lips pressed together and cheeks puffed out as though holding her breath.

Studio portrait by Thomas J. Nevin ca. 1870-75, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart
Scans courtesy © The Private Collection of Marcel Safier 2005 ARR.
NOTES Courtesy of owner Marcel Safier:
Subject not known. It came in an album I bought from a Tasmanian dealer at a Sydney collector’s fair in 2001. The pencil numbering on the rear is my own cataloguing system. The mount is 64mm x 102mm … It very closely resembles the mounts used by Bock previously.

Colour means social status

Full length and highly-coloured cdv on plain mount: A mature woman [unidentified but possibly Emily Giblin nee Perkins, wife of Thomas Nevin’s family solicitor, the Hon. W.R. Giblin, Attorney-General] wearing a white floral head covering with ribbons, a plain dress with white bow and white cuffs, seated with sewing on Nevin’s low chair covered with shiny material at his table with the griffin-shaped legs on which stands a portable pin cushion, books, and vase with flowers, all highly colored including the carpet and drape. Only the backdrop of a patterned patio looking out from an Italianate terrace to a vista of a meandering river has escaped the colouring. This carte-de-visite ca. 1872 taken by T.Nevin late A.Bock, 140 Elizabeth St., Hobart Town may have been coloured by the purchaser, whether the client, or the client’s descendants. Similar inept or heavy-handed colouring is evident on a private collection of Nevin’s studios portraits originating from a family in northern Tasmania, and another held at the QVMAG, Launceston. This item is held at the Archives Office of Tasmania, Hobart, included in a box with Thomas Nevin’s carte-de-visite of W. R. Giblin.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870 -1875
Verso with studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
TAHO Ref: PH31/439 [not digitised]
Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2012 ARR

Verso: Full length and highly-coloured cdv on plain mount: A mature woman [unidentified but possibly Emily Giblin nee Perkins, wife of Thomas Nevin’s family solicitor, the Hon. W.R. Giblin, Attorney-General] wearing a white floral head covering with ribbons, a plain dress with white bow and white cuffs, seated with sewing on Nevin’s low chair covered with shiny material at his table with the griffin-shaped legs on which stands a portable pin cushion, books, and vase with flowers, all highly colored including the carpet and drape. Only the backdrop of a patterned patio looking out from an Italianate terrace to a vista of a meandering river has escaped the colouring. This carte-de-visite ca. 1872 taken by T.Nevin late A.Bock, 140 Elizabeth St., Hobart Town may have been coloured by the purchaser, whether the client, or the client’s descendants. Similar inept or heavy-handed colouring is evident on a private collection of Nevin’s studios portraits originating from a family in northern Tasmania and another held at the QVMAG, LauncestonThis item is held at the Archives Office of Tasmania, Hobart, included in a box with Thomas Nevin’s carte-de-visite of W. R. Giblin.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870 -1875
Verso with studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
TAHO Ref: PH31/439 [not digitised]
Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2012 ARR

Widowhood

Full length cdv on plain mount:  An older  woman [unidentified] seated on Nevin’s low chair covered with shiny material, her left elbow resting on the studio table with the griffin-shaped legs where a book and a dark vase holding delicately tinted flowers in pink and yellow have been arranged. The drape is to the viewer’s left in this photograph. This woman wore a very long dark plain dress showing a fold near the hem, with braiding around the drop shoulders and a brooch on a ribbon at her throat, her hair plainly arranged at the nape. Perhaps she was newly widowed. Her eyes are sunken and her forlorn gaze averted, directed towards the foot of the camera stand rather than at the lens.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870 -1875
Verso with studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Scans courtesy of © The Private Collection of C. G. Harrisson 2006. ARR.

Verso: Full length cdv on plain mount:  An older  woman [unidentified] seated on Nevin’s low chair covered with shiny material, her left elbow resting on the studio table with the griffin-shaped legs where a book and a dark vase holding delicately tinted flowers in pink and yellow have been arranged. The drape is to the viewer’s left in this photograph. This woman wore a very long dark plain dress showing a fold near the hem, with braiding around the drop shoulders and a brooch on a ribbon at her throat, her hair plainly arranged at the nape. Perhaps she was newly widowed. Her eyes are sunken and her forlorn gaze averted, directed towards the foot of the camera stand rather than at the lens.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870 -1875
Verso with studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Scans courtesy of © The Private Collection of C. G. Harrisson 2006. ARR.

Earrings

Full length cdv on plain mount: An older woman [unidentified], possibly of East Asian origin, with small earrings and a black ribbon tied at the neck, her dress buttoned at the bodice and trimmed at the bust line, neck, shoulders and cuffs with thick white lace. She was photographed sitting on a high stool in semi-profile, eyes turned to the viewer’s left, hands folded, with the drape on the viewer’s right, in an otherwise bare studio. No table, no flowers, no back sheet, no low chair, only something flat and folded on the floor at left where the edge of the plain back sheet is visible.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870-3
Verso with the handwritten inscription in Samuel Clifford’s orthography: “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town”. The original was taken by Thomas Nevin before 1876, and reprinted by Samuel Clifford until 1878, per this advertisement in The Mercury, 17th January 1876:

Mr T. J. Nevin’s friends may depend that I will endeavour to satisfy them with any prints they may require from his negatives.
S. CLIFFORD

The original print by Nevin may have been pasted into an oval mount, which would have reduced the image and made any studio decor unnecessary at the time of capture, but when Clifford made a copy for this client from Nevin’s negative, he may have been unaware of the original mount. Several extant prints inscribed verso with “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town” which were reproduced from Nevin’s negatives show a similar lack of studio furniture.

Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q1984.295

Verso: Full length cdv on plain mount : An older woman [unidentified], possibly of East Asian origin, with small earrings and a black ribbon tied at the neck, her dress buttoned at the bodice and trimmed at the bust line, neck, shoulders and cuffs with thick white lace. She was photographed sitting on a high stool in semi-profile, eyes turned to the viewer’s left, hands folded, with the drape on the viewer’s right, in an otherwise bare studio. No table, no flowers, no back sheet, no low chair, only something flat and folded on the floor at left where the edge of the back sheet is visible.
Verso with the handwritten inscription in Samuel Clifford’s orthography: “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town”. The original was taken by Thomas Nevin before 1876, and reprinted by Samuel Clifford until 1878, per this advertisement in The Mercury, 17th January 1876:

Mr T. J. Nevin’s friends may depend that I will endeavour to satisfy them with any prints they may require from his negatives.
S. CLIFFORD

The original print by Nevin may have been pasted into an oval mount, which would have reduced the image and made any studio decor unnecessary at the time of capture, but when Clifford made a copy for this client from Nevin’s negative, he may have been unaware of the original mount. Several extant prints inscribed verso with “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town” which were reproduced from Nevin’s negatives show a similar lack of studio furniture.

Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q1984.295

Floral head band

Oval frame, head and torso to below waist cdv on plain mount: An older woman [unidentified] wearing a floral head band, a light-coloured dress, or perhaps a skirt and matching jacket trimmed in dark braid with large buttons and wide sleeves dropped from the shoulder, a white bow at her neck and a thin long chain reaching below her waist. Her gaze is serious, calm, and directed 25 degrees or so off centre towards the viewer’s right.

Courtesy of the State Library of Victoria
[Studio portrait of a woman, half-length, to left] T. Nevin.
Accession number(s):
H2005.34/2003
H2005.34/2003A

STATE LIBRARY OF VICTORIA
[Studio portrait of a woman, half-length, to left] T. Nevin.
Digital image(s):
Creator: Nevin, Thomas J., photographer.
Title:[Studio portrait of a woman, half-length, to left] [picture] / T. Nevin.
Access/Copyright: Reproduction rights: State Library of Victoria
Accession number(s):
H2005.34/2003
H2005.34/2003A
Date(s) of creation: [ca. 1867-ca. 1875]
Medium: 1 photographic print on carte de visite mount : albumen silver ;
Dimensions: 11 x 7 cm.
Collection: John Etkins collection.
Notes: Title assigned by cataloguer.
Not dated but Nevin worked at 140 Elizabeth Street, Hobart Town, between 1867-1875.
Ref.: Australians behind the camera, directory of early Australian photographers, 1841-1945 / Sandy Barrie, 2002.
Photographer printed on verso: City Photographic Establishment / T. Nevin / late / A. Bock / 140 / Elizabeth St. / Hobart Town.
Source/Donor: Gift of Mr John Etkins; 2005.

Full length cdv on plain mount : An older couple [unidentified], the woman seated with a King Charles spaniel sitting on her dress at her feet, the man standing with his right arm extended behind her. The woman wore a black floral head band with ribbons to her shoulders, a large brooch with intricate design at the neck, a thin chain to the waist, and a large dress ring with stone on her left hand. The light on her dress suggests it was made of silk, the buttons possibly made of pearl from waist to neck, with more rows of tiny round pearls, white and dark, trimming the bodice, dropped shoulders, and cuffs. While the man gazes 25 degrees away from the camera, the woman’s gaze, directed towards it, conveys complete ease with herself and the situation, despite the bare studio and makeshift backdrop behind her which contrasts markedly with her elaborate dress. Perhaps to compensate for the lack of objects to highlight and compliment the social status of this couple, someone has gone to the trouble of colouring the bodice trim of her dress in Empire green, and daubed the carpet with the same green plus light brown. The colouring is not the work of Nevin or his studio assistants, whose hand tinting was fine and delicate. This carte-de-visite may have been coloured by the purchaser, whether the client, or the client’s descendants. Similar inept or heavy-handed colouring is evident on a private collection of Nevin’s studios portraits originating from a family in northern Tasmania, and on others held in public collections (QVMAG, Launceston; State Library of Tasmania, Hobart.)

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870-1875
Verso with black studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint KLW NFC Private Collection 2013 ARR.

Verso: Full length cdv on plain mount : An older couple [unidentified], the woman seated with a King Charles spaniel sitting on her dress at her feet, the man standing with his right arm extended behind her. The woman wore a black floral head band with ribbons to her shoulders, a large brooch with intricate design at the neck, a thin chain to the waist, and a large dress ring with stone on her left hand. The light on her dress suggests it was made of silk, the buttons possibly made of pearl from waist to neck, with more rows of tiny round pearls, white and dark, trimming the bodice, dropped shoulders, and cuffs. While the man gazes 25 degrees away from the camera, the woman’s gaze, directed towards it, conveys complete ease with herself and the situation, despite the bare studio and makeshift backdrop behind her which contrasts markedly with her elaborate dress. Perhaps to compensate for the lack of objects to highlight and compliment the social status of this couple, someone has gone to the trouble of colouring the bodice trim of her dress in Empire green, and daubed the carpet with the same green plus light brown. The colouring is not the work of Nevin or his studio assistants, whose hand tinting was fine and delicate. This carte-de-visite may have been coloured by the purchaser, whether the client, or the client’s descendants. Similar inept or heavy-handed colouring is evident on a private collection of Nevin’s studios portraits originating from a family in northern Tasmania, and on others held in public collections (QVMAG, Launceston; State Library of Tasmania, Hobart.) 

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870-1875
Verso with black studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint KLW NFC Private Collection 2013 ARR.

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Categories: C. G. Harrisson Collection, Marcel Safier Collection, Private Collections, State Library of Victoria, TMAG | Tags: , , , , ,

Male and female clerics and Nevin’s table 1870s

From two different private collections …

Clerical dress
So many coincidences inform the existence of these photographs. This man and woman are both of East Asian appearance, and both wore clerical dress denoting religious affiliations when photographed in the 1870s. But were they known to each other? Both portraits were collected in Australia, despite one originating from India. And then there’s the question about the table. The male portrait poses many questions, since it was printed in Madras by the Maselawmoney Brothers photographers, but located amongst other cartes-de-visite taken by Thomas J. Nevin held in the private collection of a Tasmanian family (the Liam Peters Collection). The female portrait was acquired through a Douglas Stewart Fine Books dealers’ catalogue (Melbourne) for KLW NFC Imprint & Private Collection in 2013.

The most significant aspect of the male cleric’s portrait, from the point of view of Thomas J. Nevin’s studio decor of the 1870s, is the table at which the cleric is seated. Dozens of Nevin’s sitters at the City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town, were photographed next to this exact table in the early 1870s, including himself. Yet an identical table with the griffin-shaped legs appears in several extant portraits also taken by the Maselawmoney Bros. of Madras. The question arises, how and why did Nevin acquire an identical table, or is it the same table?

Left: Unidentified sitter wearing Indian head dress.
Photographed by Maselawmoney Brothers of Madras.
Courtesy of The Library of Nineteenth-Century Photography
Right: A child (Western dress and appearance) seated next to the table with the griffin-shaped legs, decorated with a hat and pottery figure of  a King Charles Spaniel
Photographer: Maselawmoney Brothers Madras.
Source: eBay, 17 June 2014

The Maselawmoney Bros. portrait

Verso (above) of full length cdv on plain mount of a seated man (below) with a wispy beard, East Asian in appearance and dressed in Western clerical garb, dated to ca. 1873. The verso bears the studio name and stamp of Maselawmoney Brothers, Photographers, Madras,  and a handwritten note “Mrs Fitzpatrick 2 copies, 3/- to pay”.  This handwritten inscription may have detailed the name of the person who originated the request that this man be photographed, or indeed it may have been added by the sitter himself, requesting copies for a publisher, a congregationalist, or a relative called Mrs Fitzpatrick, perhaps the name of the woman in Thomas Nevin’s  photograph (below). Did they know each other?

The cleric is seated with his right arm resting on a table with the griffin-shaped legs which now appears to be a prominent and consistent motif in Nevin’s studio decor for portraiture ca.1871-1875. On the table stands a full bunch of flowers. The cleric wears a biretta (three-cornered hat), a white collar, and full-length dark robe buttoned up the middle, over trousers. At the end of a long chain around his neck are two or more small objects. His eyes calmly focused at the camera at the point of capture. Scans courtesy of the  Liam Peters Collection 2010. All rights reserved.

The Thomas J. Nevin portrait
The young woman in this studio portrait by Thomas J. Nevin, taken ca. 1871-75, was also a cleric of East Asian appearance. She was photographed wearing a plain dark dress, and a Christian cross attached to a tight white neckband. This item is not a copy made of another Maselawmoney photograph taken in Madras and printed verso with Nevin’s stamp, because Nevin OWNED THE SAME TABLE (or one identical) which is too much of a coincidence.This photograph is not a copy. It is an original real-time capture with both Nevin and the woman in his studio at the same time. The unusual, delicate tinting of the verso studio stamp would signify that this sitter and her portrait were socially more significant to Nevin and his studio assistants than the average client.

Oval frame, head and torso to below waist cdv on plain mount: A young woman [unidentified] of East Asian appearance wearing no jewellery except for a Christian cross on a tight white neckband, in a dark plain dress with braid on dropped shoulders, velvet buttons, her hair in tight plaits pinned up to or from the part.
Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, early 1870s.
Verso with blue studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem with red tint, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint KLW NFC Private Collection 2013 ARR.

Oval frame, head and torso to below waist cdv on plain mount : A young woman [unidentified]  of East Asian appearance wearing no jewellery except for a Christian cross on a tight white neckband, in a dark plain dress with braid on dropped shoulders, velvet buttons, her hair in tight plaits pinned up to or from the part.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, early 1870s.
Verso with blue studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem with red tint, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint KLW NFC Private Collection 2013 ARR.

These two members of a religious order or movement may have visited the Nevin family at the Wesleyan Chapel, Kangaroo Valley (Tas), where Thomas Nevin’s father, John Nevin taught school at the schoolhouse, next to the family house, orchards and the Lady Franklin Museum. As visitors, and assuming they knew each other, they may have been in Tasmania on a campaign to raise relief for the Indian famine of 1870s or they may been involved with the social purity movements of temperance, sobriety and sexual health at a time when colonial governments brought in Contagious Diseases (CD) Acts:

In Australasia, Queensland passed a CD Act in 1868, followed by New Zealand in 1869, and ordinances were passed in Victoria in 1878 and Tasmania in 1879. They arose out of concern at the rising rate of venereal diseases (a particular problem in India and other places where there was a large concentration of military men deprived of normal domestic relationships), both on account of the loss of efficiency in the army and because it was feared VD would spread to the general community.
The CD Acts aimed to control the spread of VD by ‘compulsory medical inspection of common prostitutes and forcible detention in hospitals for the diseased.’ As there were so many variables in their execution, they were not always successful in containing the spread of disease.

Elisabeth Wilson‘Wandering stars’The impact of British evangelists in Australia, 1870s – 1900. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania October 2011. p. 307.

A photograph taken of Thomas J. Nevin , early 1870s, standing next to his table with the griffin-shaped legs on which rests his big box stereoscopic viewer.
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint & The Shelverton Private Collection ARR

Further reading
The London Missionary Society Collection
National Library of Australia

HISTORY of COLLECTION
Source: Gosling, Andrew, Religion and Rebellion in China: The London Missionary Society Collection, National Library of Australia News, vol. 8 (10), July 1998, pp. 3–6. http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/131760/20120120-0944/www.nla.gov.au/pub/nlanews/1998/jul98/story-1.pdf

The National Library acquired the London Missionary Society collection of Chinese language sources in 1961, as part of its effort to develop strong research holdings on modern Asia. The Library’s Liaison Officer in London at that time,F.W. Torrington, first sought advice from experts at London’s School of Oriental and African Studies and the British Museum. On 4 May 1961 he wrote to the National Librarian, Harold White, in the following terms. I have to report that the London Missionary Society has offered to sell to the National Library a collection of Chinese works of about 600 volumes. The majority of these works were published in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and they cover a wide range of subjects-religion, history, literature, politics etc. Works on theology comprise about one fifth of the total … Some of the historical and literary material is of considerable value and rarity. The most valuable items in the collection are the pamphlets relating to the T’ai P’ing rebellion …
Following receipt of this letter, the Library consulted several eminent China scholars at the Australian National University. They supported acquisition of the collection, which was duly purchased and sent to Australia on board the Carnatic in January 1962.
As Torrington noted, the most outstanding part of the collection came from the T’aiping Rebellion, one of the greatest upheavals in modern Chinese history. The Taiping (,Great Peace’) movement was founded byHung Hsiu-ch’uan, a visionary leader influenced by Liang A-fa and other Protestant missionaries. Hung preached a mixture of Christian egalitarianism and traditional Chinese utopian ideas, and established what was intended as an ideal realm known as the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace.
The movement’s reformist actions initially enjoyed some support from missionaries and other Westerners, despite misgivings about its unorthodox form of Christianity. Hung and his followers-including the former charcoal-cutter Yang Hsiuch’ing (d.1856), who became Taiping commander-in-chief-captured Nanking in 1853, making it their ‘Heavenly Capital’. For a while they looked as if they might overthrow the ruling Manchu Ch’ing dynasty. However, the Ch’ing largely retained the loyalty of the Confucian Chinese elite, who preferred Manchu government along traditional lines to Chinese rule by rebels with an ideology combining Western Christian and anti-Confucian elements. Finally, Chinese forces with some aid from foreign-officered mercenaries-crushed the rebellion with enormous loss of life.

DESCRIPTION of COLLECTION
Source::http://www.nla.gov.au/selected-library-collections/london-missionary-society-collection

The collection consists of 722 books, pamphlets, leaflets, manuscripts, newspapers and maps. The works are mostly written in Chinese, but there are also 37 titles in Japanese, three in Korean and two in Manchu. In addition, there are some bilingual works and one trilingual work (Chinese–Malay–English). The bulk of the works were published between the mid-nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, but there are a few published in the seventeenth century and a small number of works dating from the 1950s. They were published in Malacca, Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai, Ningbo, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Hankou, Taibei, Edo (Tokyo), Kyoto, San Francisco and elsewhere.
The largest group comprises Christian works, including Biblical translations and commentaries, catechisms, hymns, prayers and theological writings. Early Protestant missionaries in China are strongly represented including Robert Morrison (1782–1834), William Milne (1785–1822), Walter Medhurst (1796–1857), Karl Gutzlaff (1803–1851), James Legge (1815–1897), Benjamin Hobson (1816–1873), Joseph Edkins (1823–1905), John Chalmers (1825–1899), W.A.P. Martin (1827–1916), John Nevius (1829–1893) and Griffith John (1831–1912). There are also writings by a few Catholic missionaries and about 20 Chinese Christians, such as Ho Tsin-sheen (1817–1871), who collaborated with Legge, and Xu Jiaxing, who collaborated with W. Hopkyn Rees. Apart from publications of the London Missionary Society itself, there are works published by the South China Religious Tract Society, the Presbyterian Mission Press, the British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible Society, the Lutheran Missions Literature Society and the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

Source: http://www.nla.gov.au/selected-library-collections/london-missionary-society-collection
See also:  Christian Missions to the Chinese in Australia and New Zealand, 1855 – c1900
http://arrow.latrobe.edu.au/store/3/4/5/5/1/public/welch/missionaries.htm#rcmcb

Categories: Liam Peters Collection, Nevin Family Collections, Private Collections | Tags: , , , ,

Nevin’s women clients and their dresses 1870s

Clients of early photographers were advised to wear clothing in strong patterns to distinguish the figure from the background in the final sepia print. This is a very small selection featuring unidentified women from dozens of Thomas J. Nevin’s commercial studio portraits dated from the early to mid 1870s. These clients differed in social status, as the cut and style and fabric of their dresses suggest, in addition to their jewellery and hair-dos, but they wore their finest day dress for the occasion. Some stared directly at the photographer, others gazed towards left or right. Most are young, but extant portraits of older women who seemed to favour his services also number in the dozens. Each of these cdvs shows variations in Nevin’s studio decor, his portraiture techniques, and printed mounts. Some are also hand tinted.

CAUTION: These images are all WATERMARKED

Check Pattern

Full length cdv on plain mount: A young married woman [unidentified], standing with her right hand (with wedding ring) on a dining chair, wearing a dress with small checks, and a brooch at the neck. Her gaze is direct to the camera.
Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870 or earlier.
Verso with studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.

Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q2012.28.28

Verso of full length cdv on plain mount::  A young married woman [unidentified], standing with her right hand (with wedding ring) on a dining chair, wearing a dress with small checks, and a brooch at the neck. Her gaze is direct to the camera.
Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870 or earlier.
Verso with studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.

Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q2012.28.28

Stripe Pattern

Full length cdv on plain mount: A woman [unidentified] in her early forties, probably the wife of a government official, wearing a dark dress with white stripes and a frilled bustle, seated on Nevin’s low chair covered with shiny material, her right hand resting on the small table with the griffin-shaped legs which features in many of his studio portraits. Her gaze is direct to camera. The verso bears the Royal Arms insignia printed for Nevin’s government work ca.1873-1875. Courtesy of © The Liam Peters Collection 2010. All rights reserved.

Verso of cdv on plain mount: A woman [unidentified] in her early forties, probably the wife of a government official, wearing a dark dress with white stripes and a frilled bustle, seated on Nevin’s low chair covered with shiny material, her right hand resting on the small table with the griffin-shaped legs which features in many of his studio portraits. Her gaze is direct to camera. The verso bears the Royal Arms insignia printed for Nevin’s government work ca.1873-1875. Courtesy of © The Liam Peters Collection 2010. All rights reserved.

Plain oval mount, head and shoulders to below waist cdv: A teenage girl [unidentified] with ringlets, wearing a dark dress with wide stripes banded in white and white cuffs, holding a hand coloured posy of flowers tinted yellow. Her gaze is direct to camera. The verso of this cdv bears Nevin’s most common commercial studio stamp “T. Nevin late A. Bock” etc and dates to ca. 1871-1874. Courtesy of © The Liam Peters Collection 2010. All rights reserved.

Verso:Plain oval mount, head and shoulders to below waist cdv: A teenage girl [unidentified] with ringlets, wearing a dark dress with wide stripes banded in white and white cuffs, holding a hand coloured posy of flowers tinted yellow. Her gaze is direct to camera. The verso of this cdv bears Nevin’s most common commercial studio stamp “T. Nevin late A. Bock” etc and dates to ca. 1871-1874. Courtesy of © The Liam Peters Collection 2010. All rights reserved.

Plain or Textured with Frills

Plain oval mount, head and shoulders to below waist cdv: A young woman [unidentified] wearing no jewellery except for a Christian cross on a tight white neckband, in a dark plain dress with braid on dropped shoulders, velvet buttons, her hair in tight plaits pinned up to or from the part. Her calm gaze is 25 degrees to viewer’s left.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870 or earlier.
Verso with blue studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem with red tint, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint KLW NFC Private Collection 2013 ARR.

Verso:Plain oval mount, head and shoulders to below waist cdv: A young woman [unidentified] wearing no jewellery except for a Christian cross on a tight white neckband, in a dark plain dress with braid on dropped shoulders, velvet buttons, her hair in tight plaits pinned up to or from the part. Her calm gaze is 25 degrees to viewer’s left .
Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870 or earlier.

Verso with blue studio stamp: “Ad Altiora” above Kangaroo emblem with red tint, T. Nevin late A. Bock encircled by belt printed with “City Photographic Establishment” and address below, “140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town”. In italics below: “Further Copies can be obtained at any time”.
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint KLW NFC Private Collection 2013 ARR

Full length cdv on plain mount: A young pregnant (?) woman [unidentified] wearing a head band (tinted pink), and a dark dress with frilled bodice, bustle and hem, her hand resting on a book atop the same big box stereoscopic viewer and table with the griffin-shaped legs which feature in five extant studio portraits by Nevin of clients, of himself and family members. Her gaze is directed beyond the camera, slightly off-centre. The verso (below) bears Nevin’s most common commercial studio stamp “T. Nevin late A. Bock, City Photographic Establishment 140 Elizabeth Street Hobart Town” etc etc and dates to ca. 1871-1874. Courtesy of © The Liam Peters Collection 2010. All rights reserved.

Verso: Full length cdv on plain mount: A young pregnant (?) woman [unidentified] wearing a head band (tinted pink), and a dark dress with frilled bodice, bustle and hem, her hand resting on a book atop the same big box stereoscopic viewer and table with the griffin-shaped legs which feature in five extant studio portraits by Nevin of clients, of himself and family members. Her gaze is directed beyond the camera, slightly off-centre. The verso (below) bears Nevin’s most common commercial studio stamp “T. Nevin late A. Bock, City Photographic Establishment 140 Elizabeth Street Hobart Town” etc etc and dates to ca. 1871-1874. Courtesy of © The Liam Peters Collection 2010. All rights reserved.

Full length cdv on plain mount: A young woman [unidentified] with large roll of hair atop the part, holding a book in her left hand, seated on an invisible stool, wearing a dress densely textured with raised flecks, a short flounce attached to the waist, and a frilled bodice. Her gaze is directed towards the viewer’s right.

Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870
Verso with the handwritten inscription in Samuel Clifford’s orthography: “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town”. The original was taken by Thomas Nevin before 1876, and reprinted by Samuel Clifford until 1878, per this advertisement in The Mercury, 17th January 1876:

Mr T. J. Nevin’s friends may depend that I will endeavour to satisfy them with any prints they may require from his negatives.
S. CLIFFORD

The original print by Nevin may have been pasted into an oval mount, which would have reduced the image and made any studio decor unnecessary at the time of capture, but when Clifford made a copy for this client from Nevin’s negative, he may have been unaware of the original mount. Several extant prints inscribed verso with “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town” which were reproduced from Nevin’s negatives show a similar lack of studio furniture.

Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q1990.25400

Verso: Full length cdv on plain mount: A young woman [unidentified] with large roll of hair atop the part, holding a book in her left hand, seated on an invisible stool, wearing a dress densely textured with raised flecks, a short flounce attached to the waist, and a frilled bodice. Her gaze is directed towards the viewer’s right.
Studio portrait by Thomas Nevin ca, 1870
Verso with the handwritten inscription in Samuel Clifford’s orthography: “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town”. The original was taken by Thomas Nevin before 1876, and reprinted by Samuel Clifford until 1878, per this advertisement in The Mercury, 17th January 1876:

Mr T. J. Nevin’s friends may depend that I will endeavour to satisfy them with any prints they may require from his negatives.S. CLIFFORD

The original print by Nevin may have been pasted into an oval mount, which would have reduced the image and made any studio decor unnecessary at the time of capture, but when Clifford made a copy for this client from Nevin’s negative, he may have been unaware of the original mount. Several extant prints inscribed verso with “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town” which were reproduced from Nevin’s negatives show a similar lack of studio furniture.

Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q1990.25400

Oval frame, head and shoulders cdv on plain mount: A young woman [unidentified] with a chin dimple, wearing an elaborately frilled bodice, brooch on a ribbon wound round her neck and chain to the waist, hair curled in layers across the top of head, her stare dramatic, solemn and strongly directed at the photographer/camera.

Studio portrait by Thomas J. Nevin ca, 1870-1875
Verso with the handwritten inscription in Samuel Clifford’s orthography: “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town”. The original was taken by Thomas Nevin before 1876, and reprinted by Samuel Clifford until 1878, per this advertisement in The Mercury, 17th January 1876:

Mr T. J. Nevin’s friends may depend that I will endeavour to satisfy them with any prints they may require from his negatives.
S. CLIFFORD

Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q1984.294

Verso: Oval frame, head and shoulders cdv on plain mount: A young woman [unidentified] with a chin dimple, wearing an elaborately frilled bodice, brooch on a ribbon wound round her neck and chain to the waist, hair curled in layers across the top of head, her stare dramatic, solemn and strongly directed at the photographer/camera.

Studio portrait by Thomas J. Nevin ca, 1870-1875
Verso with the handwritten inscription in Samuel Clifford’s orthography: “Clifford & Nevin Hobart Town”. The original was taken by Thomas Nevin before 1876, and reprinted by Samuel Clifford until 1878, per this advertisement in The Mercury, 17th January 1876:

Mr T. J. Nevin’s friends may depend that I will endeavour to satisfy them with any prints they may require from his negatives.
S. CLIFFORD

Photos recto and verso copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2014-2015
Taken at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 10 November 2014
TMAG Ref: Q1984.294

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