Tasmanian crime statistics 1866-1875

MOVEMENT of PRISONERS Hobart-Port Arthur-Hobart 1871-1875
NEPOTISM and CORRUPTION: W.R. Giblin and A.H. Boyd
PHOTOGRAPHS of  PRISONERS: Thomas J. Nevin 1873

Custom, and Parliament Houses Clifford, photo.
Author/Creator: Clifford, Samuel, 1827-1890.
Publication Information: 1862.
Physical description: 1 stereoscopic pair of photographs : sepia toned ; 7 x 7 cm. each.
In: Abbott album Item 41

How many people in Tasmania over the decade 1866 to 1875 were convicted of a crime, and how many were photographed? These tables from the Journals of the House of Assembly 1875-6 gives the statistics for the Decennial Returns of persons dealt with by the Superior Courts (first table) and a Comparative Table showing the number of offences, apprehensions, convictions and acquittals for the years 1872, 1873, 1874 and 1875.

The crime statistics per capita are excessive, confirming the commonly held belief  that Tasmania was a police state from its inception as a penal colony in 1804 to the final years of the 19th century.

Between 1868 and 1875, a total number of persons convicted in the Superior Courts was one thousand and eighty-eight (1,088). Contracted by the Attorney-General W. R. Giblin in February 1872, commercial photographer Thomas J. Nevin began the systematic photographic documentation of prisoners tried at the Supreme Court Hobart and committed at the adjoining Hobart Gaol, Campbell Street.

Further refining the time span when photography was introduced as a means of police surveillance: from 1871 to 1875, the total number of persons convicted in the Superior Courts totalled three hundred and forty-three (343). The mugshots of those who were photographed by T. J. Nevin in this last group of males – more than 300 – survive in public collections today for TWO principal reasons:

REASON ONE:
Proof that the 109 prisoners, who were sent to the Port Arthur prison after 1871 when the prison was transferred from Imperial funds to the Colonial government, had been sent back to Hobart by mid 1873. Proof was needed in order for the government to proceed with the closure of the Port Arthur site. This proof – in the form of criminal records carrying the identification photograph of the prisoner – was deemed necessary by the Legislative Council and Assembly in the face of the Attorney-General W.R. Giblin’s attempt to forestall the closure of the Port Arthur prison on behalf of his brother-in-law Adolarious Humphrey Boyd, the incumbent Commandant there from 1871. Keeping the Port Arthur establishment operational would ensure that Boyd continued to enjoy his high salary, life of ease, power, position and social status. However, by December 1873, Boyd was forced to resign under allegations of nepotism and corruption directed at his brother-in-law, A-G W. R. Giblin in the Parliament. Giblin had been Nevin’s family solicitor since 1868, when Nevin dissolved his business partnership with Robert Smith, and it was Thomas J. Nevin whom the Hon. W. R. Giblin approached for the job.

As assurance to the Parliament, one hundred and nine (109) names of convicts (see list below) who were sent to Port Arthur from the Hobart Gaol from the year 1871 at the discretion of the Hobart Gaol Sheriff Thomas Reidy were officially tabled in Parliament on July 15th 1873 as soon as the resolution was passed in the House of Assembly to immediately close the prison at Port Arthur and transfer the prisoners there back to the Hobart Gaol. Thomas Nevin’s earlier contract with the Lands and Survey Department dating from 1868 was extended to provide the Parliament with their photographs.

Of those one hundred and nine (109) prisoners originally sent from the Hobart Gaol to Port Arthur after 1871 – the “Port Arthur convicts” as they became known in the mid 20th century – sixty (60) had already been transferred back to the Hobart Gaol by October 1873. On arrival at the Hobart Gaol, they were photographed in standard issue prison clothing by T. J. Nevin on being processed or “received”. His photographs of a number of these transferred  prisoners taken in 1873 were duplicated and sent back to the Port Arthur prison administration during the last weeks of A. H. Boyd’s incumbency as Commandant.

Most but not all of the prisoners’ names on that list, tabled in Parliament on 15th July 1873, tally with the names (and aliases) of the prisoners whose photographs survive in public collections, e.g. the names and “convict portraits” held at the National Library of Australia (84), most of which are the copies and exact duplicates of the same names of prisoner photographs held at the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery (72), the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery (56), the Mitchell Library SLNSW (13), and the State Library of Tasmania (10).

In summary, Thomas J. Nevin photographed the one hundred and nine (109) transferees from Port Arthur in 1873, some of whom had already been photographed on committal at the Hobart Gaol from February 1872 after their trial. Once arraigned, they were held in cells specifically designated for them while waiting to be sent to 60kms away to the Port Arthur prison. For many they were being sent back there as recidivists originally transported to Tasmania (VDL) prior to cessation in 1853. Out of the total number – three hundred and fort-three (343) photographed between 1872 and 1875, a few were females. Their “mugshots” apparently have not survived from those years. The remaining photographs, ca. three hundred (300) were copied with numbers used by archivists up to the number 322 at a later date for archival and commercial purposes (e.g. for sale at the exhibition in Sydney in conjunction with convictaria from the prison hulk Success, 1916), but in 1873 duplicates (as distinct from copies) of Nevin’s originals were tabled and held in TREASURY, paid for out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund, from which Thomas Nevin received commission as the government contractor. Other duplicates – at least four and usually six printed from every glass negative – were held at the Hobart Gaol, and at the central registry in the Town Hall Municipal Police Office, while further duplicates were circulated to territorial and regional police on the prisoner’s discharge on various conditions to work. Copies were also sent back to the prison at Port Arthur at the request of the assistant Colonial Secretary, B. Travers Solly in early January 1874.

REASON TWO
Tourism, pure and simple. The commercial (and amateur) photographer John Watt Beattie was commissioned as government photographer in 1892 to provide tourist memorabilia of Tasmania’s penal heritage, especially to intercolonial tourists in the hope they would visit Carnarvon, as the former Port Arthur prison site was renamed. Revamped at considerable cost, it was heavily promoted as Tasmania’s premier tourist attraction (nothing’s changed, it seems). John Watt Beattie salvaged Thomas J. Nevin’s 1870s’ glass negatives, original uncut prints and prints in oval mounts of Tasmanian prisoners from a number of sources:

  • the Treasury where Attorney- General W. R. Giblin had tabled and paid for them;
  • the Sheriff’s Office at the Hobart Gaol where old criminal records (rap sheets) carrying the pasted photograph remained intact;
  • the old photographer’s room at the Hobart Gaol which was due for demolition in 1915;
  • the Municipal Police Office at the Hobart Town Hall where Thomas J. Nevin was Office-keeper of the criminal registers from 1875;
  • and from families, collectors, and auctions.

J. W. Beattie’s collections were accessioned at the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery on his death in 1930, and exhibited in Launceston in 1934. These are the sources of the extant prisoner photographs, mistakenly catalogued as “Convict portraits, Port Arthur 1874” in the years 1916, 1958, 1977, 1985 and 1991, when they were extensively copied and circulated to other national museums and libraries. Estrays from a government source were donated to the National Library of Australia in 1964. If Beattie had not salvaged them, these early photographs from the 1870s of Australian prisoners would not have survived as they do today in public collections.

Prisoner SMITH, William per Rodney 3
QVMAG Collection
Photographer: Thomas J. Nevin 1874
Verso stamped with Nevin’s Royal Arms government contractor stamp

One obvious question remains: where are the rest of the “mugshots” of all the other persons convicted, apprehended, tried, and acquitted in Tasmania during the Nevin brothers’ involvement as police photographers. Constable John Nevin, Thomas Nevin’s brother, was his assistant in the Hobart Gaol from the mid 1870s to the mid 1880s. There would have been at least a thousand, including duplicates, in existence by the late 1880s. The 1890s prisoner mugshots have survived, and are held at the Archives Office of Tasmania (See GD128 Photographic record and description of prisoners) , but those from the Nevin brothers’ active involvement were largely destroyed because they pictured men with the dreaded and shameful connection to Port Arthur. From historians such as Robson (1983) and Alexander (2010), it is clear that the “stain” of convict heritage was keenly felt by Tasmanians as the 20th century approached: the majority of these same mugshots from the 1870s and 1880s were burnt, destroyed and even smuggled to Melbourne to be auctioned privately. The Lyons government (1923-1928) was principally involved in their destruction.

SUMMARY of STATISTICS
Source: Journals of the House of Assembly and Legislative Council 1875-6:

  • Four (4) persons were executed between 1868 and 1875. Thomas Nevin photographed Job Smith, executed in May 1875. Copies or duplicates of his photograph are held at the National Library of Australia and the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.
  • Twenty one thousand, eight hundred and fifty six (21, 856) persons were tried in the Superior Courts between 1868 and 1875.
  • One thousand and eighty-eight (1,088) persons were convicted in the Superior Courts between 1868 and 1875.
  • Three hundred and forty-three (343) persons were convicted in the Superior Courts between 1871 and 1875, most of whom were PHOTOGRAPHED by T. J. Nevin from 1872 onwards.

Tas crime stats 1872-1875

Comparative table showing the number of offences etc
Source: Journals of the Tasmanian House of Assembly 1873-1875 (NLA, Microfilm)

Tasmanian crime statistics 1866-1875
Source: Journals of the Tasmanian House of Assembly 1873-1875 (NLA, Microfilm)

More detail: Tasmanian crime statistics 1866-1875
Source: Journals of the Tasmanian House of Assembly 1873-1875 (NLA Microfilm)

The list of 109 prisoners sent to Port Arthur from 1871 and tabled to return by October 1873 to the Hobart Gaol:

The list continued:
109 prisoners sent to Port Arthur from 1871 and tabled to return by October 1873 to the Hobart Gaol:

TRANSCRIPT

Will the Sheriff be good enough to inform me by what principle or rule he is guided in selecting Prisoners to be sent to Port Arthur?
F.M. INNES
10th June, [18]’73
_________________________
The transmission of Prisoners to Port Arthur is not regulated by any Executive rule, but the Sheriff in his discretion selects them from the following classes: –
1st. Men convicted before the Supreme Court.
2nd. Absconders from Gaols or Labour Gangs.
3rd. Men under Magisterial Sentences of 12 months and upwards.
4th. From men of the last class under shorter sentences if required to keep up the strength of the Establishment.
The Hon. F.M. INNES J. FORSTER
11 June, [18]’73.
__________________________
NOMINAL RETURN of all Prisoners sent to PORT ARTHUR since its transfer to the Colonial Government, showing their Ages, dates of Conviction, where Convicted, Crimes, and Sentences.

Names. Age. Date of Conviction Where Convicted. Crimes Sentences
Malden, Alfred
Duncan, Thomas
O’Brien, Michael
Ryan, Thomas
Williams, John
Smith, Samuel or Ketts
Glen, James
Pearce, John
Oakley, John
Willis, John
Appleby, John
Pender, Joseph
Evenden, John
Smith, Henry
Conningsby, Wllm
Conlan, James
Allen, Thomas
Green, William
Gregson, Francis
Gregson, John
Stewart, William
Johnson, George
Thomas, James
Murphy, Michael
Dunn, John
Simpson, James
Jeffrey, Mark
Aylward, Philip
Douglas, Robert or Welsh
Downes, Charles
White, John
Saunders, James
Simpson, Charles
Billington, William
Grant, Patrick
Harper, Thomas
Woodland, James
Wilson, George
Merchant, James
Adams, William
Fox, William
Bull, James
Box, Samuel
Saywood, Robert
Campbell, William alias Job Smith
Bright, William
Jones, John
Stewart, William
Atkinson, George
Power, Thomas
McCullum, Hugh
Colhoun, James
Burns, Michael
Williams, Henry
Gangell, Jacob
Donovan, John
Kilpatrick, James
Mumford, William
Lewis, Henry
Phillips, Richard
Smith, John
Willis, Geo or Metcalfe
Kellow, William
Jones, William alias Jas. Brocklehurst
Byran, Matthew
Wamsley, joseph
Regan, John
Doran, Albert
Finley, John
Robinson, George
Cochrane, Moses
Carr, John
Carey, William
Fielding, Henry
Armstrong, Richard
McKay, Robert
Spencer, William
Williams, John
Smith, John alias Wm Orrin
Larkins, Stephen
Roberts, Henry
Morrison, William
Dean, Thomas
Quinn, James
Adamson, George
Smith, Alexander
Wiseman, Thomas
Simmonds, Edward
Swain, John
Brading, Robert
Blanchfield, Jas. W,
Langton, John
Dowd, Martin
Kilburn, John
Marsden, William
Brown, Henry
Pigott, Richard
Garfitt, Charles
Griffin, Thomas
Smith, John alias Marsh
Norris, John
Newham, William
McDonald, Duncan
Theobald, Christopher
Triffit, Edward
Rowe (or Roe), John
Holdcroft, John
Steventon, Charles
____________
THOS.REIDY
H.M. Gaol, &c., for Males, Hobart, 9th June , 1873
The Assistant Colonial Secretary Secretary
JAMES BARNARD
GOVERNMENT PRINTER, TASMANIA

The Hon. W. R. GIBLIN’S RESPONSE: the 60 prisoners returned to Hobart before July 15, 1873:

TRANSCRIPT

Mr. Gray asked the Honorable the Attorney-General if it is the intention of Government to comply with and carry out the Resolution of this House of 24th June last as to the Port Arthur Establishments.

Mr. Attorney-General replied: – It is. Sixty Prisoners have already been removed to Hobart Town; and it is intended to proceed with their removal as soon as arrangements for the proper custody and control of the Prisoners can be made on the Main Land [i.e. at the Hobart Gaol].

Hon. William Robert Giblin, Tasmanian Attorney-General and Premier
Photo by Thomas J. Nevin 1874.
Verso with T. Nevin stamp
TAHO Collection Ref: NS 1013/1971

The Hon. W. R. Giblin ca. 1880
Tasmanian Attorney-General and Premier
In J. W. Beattie’s Album, Members of the Tasmanian Parliament 1900
Photo KLW NFC 2014. TAHO Collection.

Order to table expenses spent on repairs at Port Arthur,
Journals of the House of Assembly July 1873 (NLA, Microfilm)